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Abstract  

A two-compartment model was used to describe the irreversible sorption behavior of 137Cs on frayed edge sites (FES) of finite capacity in soils in Hong Kong reservoir. The sorption rate was assumed to depend on factors like the fractional water activity concentration, the difference between the activity concentration of 137Cs in aqueous phase and that in particulate phase, and the number of available sorption sites. By varying the exponents of the different factors, very good fitting was obtained between experimental data and theory. A relationship between the number of available frayed edge sites and the mass of soil was proposed.

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The stability behaviour of a thin-film superconductor under a localized release of thermal disturbance is investigated. Two-dimensional conjugate film/substrate conduction equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity of the film, and Joule heat are employed to investigate effects of substrate and thermal properties on the intrinsic stability and quenching recovery. To consider the thermal boundary resistance between film and substrate, an interfacial-layer model (ILM) with very low diffusivity and an acoustic mismatch model (AMM) are employed. Results show that the thermal boundary resistance influences strongly the intrinsic stability. Thermal boundary resistance increases intrinsic stability if the thermal conductivity of the substrate or the disturbance energy is large. Higher Biot numbers and thermal conductivity ratios of film to substrate in longitudinal direction influence stability favorably. We demonstrate also that operation of a film/substrate system, such as YBCO/MgO, is either intrinsically stable or irrecoverably unstable.

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Abstract  

A radiochemical method has been developed for the determination of99Tc in low-level radioactive, waste from nuclear facilities, using99mTc as an internal tracer. Radioactive contaminants were removed by carrier hydroxide precipitation and chelating extraction with NaDDC/CHCl3 system at pH 4. The final technetium was chelated with NaDDC in 3N HCl solution and extracted selectively into chloroform. The average of radiochemical recovery for various types of LLW sample is about 90%. The decontamination factors for most radioactive nuclides are higher than 105. The detection limit for99Tc in a sample of about 10 g is 0.17 pCi/g (6.5 Bq·kg–1) for a 100-minute count.

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Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxicant in acute and chronic hepatic injury. The study examined the protective effect of sesame oil against TAA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Hepatic injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of TAA for 24 h. Triple doses of sesame oil (1, 2, or 4 mL/kg) was given orally 0, 6, and 12 h after TAA treatment. TAA significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Sesame oil decreased serum AST and ALT levels and significantly inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels compared with TAA-alone group. Further, sesame oil significantly inhibited TAA-induced hepatic neutrophil activation marker myeloperoxidase activity. However, sesame oil did not affect hepatic tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β and IL-10 generation in TAA-treated group. In conclusion, sesame oil protects against TAA-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress via the inhibition of neutrophil activation. However, inflammatory cytokines may not be involved in sesame-oil-associated hepatic protection against TAA in rats.

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Thermodynamic transition properties of highly ordered smectic phases

Series of main-chain liquid crystalline polyethers

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Y Yoon
,
R. -M. Ho
,
F. Li
,
B. Moon
,
D. Kim
,
J. -Y. Park
,
F. W. Harris
,
S. Z. D. Cheng
,
V. Percec
, and
P. Chu

A series of polyethers have been synthesized from 1-(4-hydroxy-4′-biphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane and α, Ω-dibromoalkanes having different numbers of methylene units [TPPs]. Both odd- and even-numbered TPPs [TPP(n=odd)s and TPP(n=even)s) exhibit multiple transitions during cooling and heating and they show little supercooling dependence, indicating close-to-equilibrium nature of these transitions. Combining the structural characterization obtainedvia wide angle X-ray diffraction powder and fiber patterns at different temperatures and the morphological observations from microscopy techniques, not only the nematic liquid crystalline phase but also highly ordered smecticF, smectic crystalG andH phases have been identified. The phase diagrams for both TPP(n=odd)s and TPP(n=even)s have been constructed [1–3]. Thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy changes) during these transitions are studied based on differential scanning calorimetry experiments. The contributions of the mesogenic groups and methylene units to each ordering process can be separated and they indicate the characteristics of these processes thereby providing estimations of the transition types.

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