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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Giovanna Bruni, C. Milanese, G. Bellazzi, V. Berbenni, P. Cofrancesco, A. Marini, and M. Villa

Abstract  

The processes of production of drugs and dosage forms in the solid state often cause unwanted transformation of portions of the substances into amorphous state, with significant changes of properties such as stability and bio-availability. When this amorphous fraction is of the order of a few percent, it usually goes unnoticed, but it should be accurately determined within a quality control system. In this work, we consider a model drug, perphenazine, where partial amorphisation may be induced by standard mechanical treatments. We show that Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) leads to consistent estimations of the amorphous fractions induced by the treatment. Furthermore, DSC also yields the expected amounts of amorphous perphenazine when analysing known mixtures of perfectly crystalline samples (untreated) and partially amorphous samples (treated). We show that even amorphous fractions of the order of 1% are accurately estimated by our method.

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Abstract  

We apply a range of techniques (thermal methods, microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy) to characterize a drug (atenolol), several excipients (PVP=polyvinylpyrrolidone, MGST=magnesium stearate, Avicel©) and drug-excipients mixtures either as prepared, annealed, and exposed to moisture. We compare the data of the mixtures with those computed from a weighted average of similarly treated pure compounds to find evidence of drug properties modified by the interaction with the excipient. We find that thermal response is by far the most sensitive indicator of interaction while IR is the least sensitive one. Avicel© has essentially no interaction with atenolol, while MGST modifies significantly only the thermal response of the drug in the MGST-rich mixtures. PVP interacts strongly with atenolol, and this interaction appears to be mediated by the substantial amount of hydration water the excipient brings in its mixtures with a water-free drug.

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Abstract  

This work exemplifies a general method of studying the drug excipient interactions, with the aim of predicting rapidly and inexpensively the long term stability of their mixtures. We study the physico-chemical properties of a drug (indomethacin) in the solid state and in different combinations with several excipients (PVP=polyvinylpyrrolidone, MGST=magnesium stearate, Avicel©). We compare the properties of pure compounds (untreated, or moisture/temperature conditioned) with those of binary mixtures drug:excipient which underwent the same treatment. The purpose is to find indications of interactions within the mixtures, which means a potential incompatibility of the excipient. Both morphological and thermal properties are sensitive to interactions which leave mostly unmodified the IR spectra and the X-rays patterns. In particular, we find that indomethacin does interact with PVP and MGST, but is certainly compatible with Avicel©.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Bruni, V. Berbenni, C. Milanese, A. Girella, P. Cofrancesco, G. Bellazzi, and A. Marini

Abstract  

In this work the solid-state characterization of anhydrous D-mannitol has been performed: α and β modifications can be distinguished only by XRPD and FTIR as they show melting temperature and enthalpy that are the same within the standard deviation. The understanding of the thermal behaviour of the δ form (obtained by re-crystallization in acetone) has required XRPD experiments performed at variable temperature. This form during heating undergoes a solid phase transition to α modification. By cooling a melted sample, under a wide range of experimental conditions, a very fast crystallization occurs. Independently of the starting crystal form (β or δ form), the re-crystallization of D-mannitol from melt always leads to α form.

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