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In a Freud-type weighted (w) space, introducing another weight (v) with infinitely many roots, we give a complete and minimal system with respect to vw, by deleting infinitely many elements from the original orthonormal system with respect to w. The construction of the conjugate system implies an interpolation problem at infinitely many nodes. Besides the existence, we give some convergence properties of the solution.

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The horse-chestnut leafminer is a new pest which was established in North-West Hungary ca. 10 years prior to these investigations. Due to the very limited time, there are relatively few studies on the parasitoid community of the moth and its connection with the leafminer host. Authors used twig-isolators to find out which larval/pupal instars are mostly parasitized and by which chalcidoid species. They also made an attempt to calculate density curves of different developmental stages of the moth and to compare them with flight curves of the parasitoids. Experiences indicated that 4-week-old larval (pupal) instars were parasitized to the highest degree. The most frequent parasitoids were Pediobius saulius and Pnigalio agraules . Statements about a poor synchronization between moth and parasitoids were confirmed but possibility of a shift in swarming times on location was suggested. Different methods to calculate rate of parasitism were compared and evaluated.

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Authors provide a 6-year study about aspects of development of Cameraria ohridella and its parasitoids in different leaf types of horse-chestnut trees. Investigations were carried out near Hédervár, North-West Hungary between 1999 and 2004.It was ascertained that in large leaves at low foliage levels as well as in large leaves exposed to direct sunlight developed more moths than in other leaf types of equal quantity (i.e. equal number of leaflets). On the other hand, there were not considerable differences between shaded and sun-exposed leaves in this regard if their quantity is measured in grams. Moreover, comparing the numbers of hatched moths per unit leaf weight, the values for minute leaves were the highest. The differences were explained on the basis of diverse microclimatic conditions in the mines, height preference of the moth or variations in dry weights per unit leaf area.Parasitism of Cameraria ohridella showed significant yearly differences between canopy levels and a tendency of changes during the years. Parasitism was higher in shaded than in sun-exposed leaves. Lowest values were found in minute leaves among all leaf types investigated what was explained with a presumed foraging behaviour of the parasitoids.Structure and species constitution of the parasitoid community and its changes in time are discussed in different leaf types. Temporal changes of several characteristics found in different leaf types refer to an adaptation process of the horse-chestnut leafminer.

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Until recently the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was considered uniform. The infectious agent was thought to be a single strain of prion (posttranslationally altered form of normal prion protein: PrPSc) retaining its biochemical and biological characteristics during interspecies transmission. However, alternate PrPSc signatures through large-scale screening have recently been detected. In addition, genetic alterations governing susceptibility to prion infection and a mutation (E211K) capable of eliciting spontaneous BSE have been demonstrated. Thus, the spectrum of BSEs have broadened and three PrPSc variants (BSE-C, BSE-H and BSE-L) are now defined. Moreover, a new condition resembling BSE, idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC), has been described that may also turn out to be a prion disease. Since one of the new BSE variants, L-type BSE, proved highly pathogenic detection and further characterization of the new conditions are essential.

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A new equipment based on the inverse-die method

Application of a twin-calorimeter in agricultural industry I

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Horváth, P. Prommer, and P. Marik-Korda

An automated twin-calorimeter has been developed for the analysis of relatively small sample series which is suitable for the simple and fast analysis of fertilizers. The apparatus was given the name AGROTHERM

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The present work aims to raise awareness of the issue of patient safety communication in multicultural and multilingual healthcare settings and to present strategies on how to overcome emerging cultural and language barriers and enable healthcare providers to reduce the risk of miscommunication, prevent inequalities and disparities, and provide their patients with safe and quality care. It also strives to present the policies and measures the United States and Canada have implemented and the strategies U.S. experts have developed to advance effective communication between provider and patient.


The literature review was conducted on academic works and publications by health associations, institutes of health, and government departments in topics such as adverse events in health care and strategies to reduce cross-cultural miscommunications and on guides for hospitals.


Cultural diversity in a patient population, language barriers, and a lack of effective communication can impose an increased threat on an individual's health. In order to radically decrease the incidence of adverse events, policies and systems on how to manage multinational and multilingual medical environments should be created at a national level. Cultural competence is also key to delivering care that meets patients' social and cultural needs; furthermore, developing a language access plan and providing language assistance (interpretation, translation) for those in need can greatly contribute to providing quality care.


Clear communication is key to quality care and patient safety in multicultural and multilingual healthcare environments, but to significantly reduce the incidence of adverse events, policies and systems should be created at a national level.

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The thermal decomposition of [Co(NH3)5CO3]NO3, [Co(NH3)5NO2](NO3)2 and [Co(NH3)5H2O](NO3)3 complexes was studied by simultaneous TG, DTG, DTA (Derivatograph-C), termogastitrimetry, continuous selective water detection, TG-MS, and XRD methods.

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: P. Erdős, R. Farzan, and Gy. Horváth
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In this review results are summarized regarding the effect of virus infection on the physiological processes of weeds. Through several host-virus model relations the biomass and seed production, seed viability and germination, nutrient uptake, drought-resistance and photosynthetic pigment content of healthy and virus infected plants were compared. Because of their broad host range and high genetic variability viruses cannot be used for biological weed control. It was concluded that viruses unfavourably can influence physiological processes of weeds. Therefore, they may contribute indirectly to the reduction of competitive ability and population of weeds.

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