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  • Author or Editor: P. Köles x
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Seven parents (CST2002, MT34, OS-Sel-2, TKG22, AAUDT9304-14-4, B67 and Rama), their 21 F 1 s and 21 F 2 s were grown in summer 2003 in a randomized block design with three replications. Heterosis and inbreeding depression were studied for seven important yield-contributing characters (plant height, branch number plant −1 , capsules plant −1 , seeds capsule −1 , 1000-seed weight, stick yield plant −1 and seed yield plant −1 ). Maximum heterosis for seed yield plant −1 over the mid- and better-parent was recorded in CST2002×TKG22 (43.30%) and MT34×B67 (27.22%), respectively. Mid-parent heterosis for seed yield plant −1 was due to cumulative heterosis for various important component traits, such as capsules plant −1 , seeds capsule −1 and 1000-seed weight. Inbreeding depression was highest for seed yield, followed by 1000-seed weight, capsules plant −1 , branch number and plant height, indicating the predominance of non-additive genetic effects. B67×Rama exhibited significant positive heterosis in F 1 , but non-significant inbreeding depression in F 2 for seed yield. This cross can be utilized as basic material for identifying better pure lines. The clustering pattern indicated that in general genetically diverse parents exhibited more heterosis, as evident in the majority of the crosses.

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The toxic heavy metal concentrations were investigated in plants in a meadow located 51 kilometres from Budapest along the M3 motorway. The field is regularly harvested, and the hay is used as fodder. The area under investigation is situated directly alongside the protecting fence of the motorway. The soil of the area is classified as chernozem brown forest soil. In 2000 approximately 22,860 cars per month travelled on the motorway. The plant samples were taken at a distance of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 metres from the motorway. At each distance 10 samples were collected. After digestion with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid the zinc, lead, cadmium and copper contents of the samples were analysed using an ICP spectrophotometer. After analysing the data it was established that for each of the heavy metals the concentration of metal in the plant samples decreased as the distance from the motorway grew. The measured zinc, cadmium and copper concentrations were similar to those reported by other authors (on average 44.9, 0.276 and 5.25 mg kg-1), while the values of the lead concentration were lower than those published previously (on average 2.93 mg kg-1). This may have been due to the widespread use of lead-free fuel.

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