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  • Author or Editor: P. Kovács x
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In his paper the author examines the written and epigraphic sources on Caracalla’s visit to Pannonia. Despite the earlier hypothesizes the visit must bed dated to the autumn of 213 because the emperor stayed at the end of December in Nicomedia. As the Alamannic war ended only in September and his route to the East Caracalla could spend a very short time in Pannonia, i. e. he travelled only through the province that is why the written sources hardly mentions this visit. Most of the inscriptions mentioning the emperor from this period has nothing to with this visit. Based on a Greek inscription from Ephesus the emperor had to stop only in Sirmium most probably because of the Dacian problems. He had no time to visit Dacia either. A Barbarian attack into Pannonia under his reign must be ruled out.

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An Inscription of Ti. Claudius Paulinus from Pannonia? A drawing of an unpublished Roman statue base from Tát came to light together with several archaeological (mainly medieval) finds in a 19th-century (?) booklet in Esztergom, according to the record the drawing was prepared in 1814. The inscription of the statue base describes a senatorial career and the person can be identified most probably with Ti. Claudius Paulinus, governor of Lower Britain in 220 (PIR2 II 231 Nr. 955 cf. RIB 311, 1280, CIL XIII 3162). As the text follows almost exactly his earlier inscription from Britain (RIB 311) and it contaminates a Pannonian funerary text from Sárisáp (RIU 769), it is highly likely that the drawing is a 20th-century forgery.

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Apples were harvested at three different times (1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd) then stored at 1-3 °C, 85-90% R.H. for 5 months. Firmness, ethylene productivity, the distribution of calcium and potassium and the ion leakage were measured. The ultrastructure of the cell wall was studied by SEM and TEM and he activity of β-galactosidase and polygalacturonase and pectin content were determined. The ethylene evolution of fruits decreased by the harvest and storage time. At the beginning of storage, the ethylene productivity in the 1 st harvest apple increased up to a maximum value then declined. The 2 nd harvest fruits produced less ethylene than that observed in 1 st harvest fruits. No ethylene production was found in the 3 rd harvest fruits. Firmness was different according to harvest time, but that difference disappeared during storage. The permeability of membranes increased as a function of harvests and storage. The distribution of calcium was typical at the beginning, the highest concentration of calcium being near the core and skin, but by the end of the storage calcium moved from the skin towards the core. Potassium content was the highest near the core and decreased towards the skin, both in the fresh and stored apples. The activities of polygalacturonase and β -galactosidase were not influenced by the harvest time, but changed as a function of storage time. The autolysis of pectin and soluble carbohydrates increased during storage, mostly in the 3 rd harvest. At the beginning of storage, the cell wall and middle lamellae of the 1 st harvest fruits' flesh were not damaged. Large degradation of the middle lamellae was observed in the 2 nd and 3 rd harvest fruits. Lower membrane permeability, pectin degradation and PG enzyme activity were found in the 1 st harvest apples. The Idared apple should be harvested close to the climacteric maximum for better and longer storage.

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Using confocal microscopic analysis, FITC-labelled anti-a-tubulin antibody and the fluorescent taxol derivative Flutax-1 in fixed and living Tetrahymena pyriformis GL, longitudinal microtubules, oral and somatic cilia, deep fibers, and contractile vacuole pores were equally labeled. While the antibody stained transversal microtubules, these were not labeled by Flutax-1. At the same time, oral cilia were more intensely stained by Flutax-1, than by the antibody. There were no differences in the staining of fixed preparations and living cells. The observations suggest (i) the difference between the MAPs of longitudinal and transversal microtubules which allow or inhibit the binding of the indicator molecules, and (ii) the different functions of these two types of microtubules.

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Cryopreservation appears to be a suitable solution for the maintenance of potato germplasms. The protocol described in this paper can be applied for the vitrification and preservation of meristems. During histo-cytological studies it is possible to observe modifications at the cellular level and to understand the adaptive mechanism to low temperatures. Control potato meristem tissue contained a number of meristematic cells with a gradient of differentiation. After freezing there were a large number of vacuolated cells, some of which exhibited broken cell walls and plasmolysis. The thickening of the cell wall, giving them a sinuous appearance, was observed after freezing and thawing the meristems, with ruptures of the cuticle and epidermal layer.

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The paper includes the description and complementation of a building inscription found in the late Roman cemetery of Intercisa in 2003. The inscription consists of 3 lines and on the basis of the imperial epithet (Antoniniana) in the last line it can be dated to the age of Caracalla (the name of the emperor in the first line and his titulature in the second was complemented accordingly), whereas the third line contained the name of the garrison: cohors I Aurelia Antonina milliaria Hemesenorum sagittaria equitata. The provenance of the inscription is secondary, thus we cannot determine the building where the inscription was originally erected.

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The statistical analysis of salinity data from samples collected yearly from genetic soil horizons of 69 points of the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System between 1992 and 2000 showed changes in time. There is a strong atmospheric control over the groundwater level and the resulting soil salinity. Weak statistical association was established between either the pattern of yearly soil salinity changes in the second (10-20 cm) and third (30-40 cm) genetic horizon and the groundwater observation stations or the soil types. In the area of Kecskemét there was a tendency of decreasing soil salinity patterns, while around Békéscsaba a tendency of increasing soil salinity patterns, as illustrated by the correspondence biplot. Regarding soil types, the solonetzic meadow soil showed a tendency of increasing salinity. It was concluded that the statistical analyses of the monitored data must be carefully planned in order to provide the optimal background data as independent data from all those available to accompany the monitored soil data as dependent variable.

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The aim of the present study is a better understanding of the distribution and formation of salt efflorescences by mineralogical examination. Dominant sodium sulphate and sodium chloride surface efflorescences were selected for investigation. 24 samples were collected between 1999 and 2005 from 16 sites. The soil types were solonchak and meadow solonetz.Basic soil and groundwater analyses were performed according to the standard methods. Minerals were determined by X-ray diffractometry and SEM combined with microanalysis. The evaporation experiments were carried out in a Sanyo Versatile 350 HT environmental test chamber.It was concluded that common sulphate salts form rare and unique mineral associations on salt affected soils in Hungary.Comparing the groundwater compositions and the mineral associations of surface efflorescences or that of precipitated evaporites of groundwaters, the conclusion can be drawn that groundwater composition is reflected much better by the mineral association of experimentally precipitated evaporates of the groundwater than by the mineral associations of surface efflorescences. These differences suggest that the soil matrix may have an effect on the crystallization of minerals (e.g. gypsum, thenardite) in the efflorescences. The differences also suggest that in the surface efflorescences the precipitation process does not come to the end in all cases (minerals with high solubility are missing).Concerning the data on groundwater level depths in case of different (sodium carbonate versus sodium sulphate and sodium chloride) efflorescences, there is a tendency of declining groundwater table in the sequence of these soils. This difference can be explained by the difference (increase) in the solubility of various salt minerals.It was recognized that the change in the major component of surface efflorescenes in time (i.e. the sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate chloride versus sodium sulphate efflorescences before and after 1998) can be explained by the decline of the groundwater level and by the decreasing hydromorphic influence in the lowland area during the 19th and 20th century.Finally it can be stated that the presented research — which mainly focused on mineralogical aspects — has contributed to the earlier knowledge on surface salt efflorescences, which was based only on their chemical composition.

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