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In his paper the author examines the written and epigraphic sources on Caracalla’s visit to Pannonia. Despite the earlier hypothesizes the visit must bed dated to the autumn of 213 because the emperor stayed at the end of December in Nicomedia. As the Alamannic war ended only in September and his route to the East Caracalla could spend a very short time in Pannonia, i. e. he travelled only through the province that is why the written sources hardly mentions this visit. Most of the inscriptions mentioning the emperor from this period has nothing to with this visit. Based on a Greek inscription from Ephesus the emperor had to stop only in Sirmium most probably because of the Dacian problems. He had no time to visit Dacia either. A Barbarian attack into Pannonia under his reign must be ruled out.
An Inscription of Ti. Claudius Paulinus from Pannonia? A drawing of an unpublished Roman statue base from Tát came to light together with several archaeological (mainly medieval) finds in a 19th-century (?) booklet in Esztergom, according to the record the drawing was prepared in 1814. The inscription of the statue base describes a senatorial career and the person can be identified most probably with Ti. Claudius Paulinus, governor of Lower Britain in 220 (PIR2 II 231 Nr. 955 cf. RIB 311, 1280, CIL XIII 3162). As the text follows almost exactly his earlier inscription from Britain (RIB 311) and it contaminates a Pannonian funerary text from Sárisáp (RIU 769), it is highly likely that the drawing is a 20th-century forgery.
Apples were harvested at three different times (1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd) then stored at 1-3 °C, 85-90% R.H. for 5 months. Firmness, ethylene productivity, the distribution of calcium and potassium and the ion leakage were measured. The ultrastructure of the cell wall was studied by SEM and TEM and he activity of β-galactosidase and polygalacturonase and pectin content were determined. The ethylene evolution of fruits decreased by the harvest and storage time. At the beginning of storage, the ethylene productivity in the 1 st harvest apple increased up to a maximum value then declined. The 2 nd harvest fruits produced less ethylene than that observed in 1 st harvest fruits. No ethylene production was found in the 3 rd harvest fruits. Firmness was different according to harvest time, but that difference disappeared during storage. The permeability of membranes increased as a function of harvests and storage. The distribution of calcium was typical at the beginning, the highest concentration of calcium being near the core and skin, but by the end of the storage calcium moved from the skin towards the core. Potassium content was the highest near the core and decreased towards the skin, both in the fresh and stored apples. The activities of polygalacturonase and β -galactosidase were not influenced by the harvest time, but changed as a function of storage time. The autolysis of pectin and soluble carbohydrates increased during storage, mostly in the 3 rd harvest. At the beginning of storage, the cell wall and middle lamellae of the 1 st harvest fruits' flesh were not damaged. Large degradation of the middle lamellae was observed in the 2 nd and 3 rd harvest fruits. Lower membrane permeability, pectin degradation and PG enzyme activity were found in the 1 st harvest apples. The Idared apple should be harvested close to the climacteric maximum for better and longer storage.
The paper includes the description and complementation of a building inscription found in the late Roman cemetery of Intercisa in 2003. The inscription consists of 3 lines and on the basis of the imperial epithet (Antoniniana) in the last line it can be dated to the age of Caracalla (the name of the emperor in the first line and his titulature in the second was complemented accordingly), whereas the third line contained the name of the garrison: cohors I Aurelia Antonina milliaria Hemesenorum sagittaria equitata. The provenance of the inscription is secondary, thus we cannot determine the building where the inscription was originally erected.
Using confocal microscopic analysis, FITC-labelled anti-a-tubulin antibody and the fluorescent taxol derivative Flutax-1 in fixed and living Tetrahymena pyriformis GL, longitudinal microtubules, oral and somatic cilia, deep fibers, and contractile vacuole pores were equally labeled. While the antibody stained transversal microtubules, these were not labeled by Flutax-1. At the same time, oral cilia were more intensely stained by Flutax-1, than by the antibody. There were no differences in the staining of fixed preparations and living cells. The observations suggest (i) the difference between the MAPs of longitudinal and transversal microtubules which allow or inhibit the binding of the indicator molecules, and (ii) the different functions of these two types of microtubules.
Cryopreservation appears to be a suitable solution for the maintenance of potato germplasms. The protocol described in this paper can be applied for the vitrification and preservation of meristems. During histo-cytological studies it is possible to observe modifications at the cellular level and to understand the adaptive mechanism to low temperatures. Control potato meristem tissue contained a number of meristematic cells with a gradient of differentiation. After freezing there were a large number of vacuolated cells, some of which exhibited broken cell walls and plasmolysis. The thickening of the cell wall, giving them a sinuous appearance, was observed after freezing and thawing the meristems, with ruptures of the cuticle and epidermal layer.
Discovering the relationships among plant morphological and quantitative features is very important in maize breeding and production, particularly if they can be altered by selection or agro-technical methods. We examined tassel characteristics (tassel weight, tassel stalk diameter, number of primary branches, total length of branches, tassel length from lower and upper branches, Tassel Area Index) and several quantitative features (plant height, ear height, LAI, number of leaf, yield, 1000-kernel weight, test weight) of 12 hybrids in randomized block design during two subsequent years on two locations. Our aim was to find correlation between traits. Tassel weight was positively correlated with total number of branches (0.59**), number of primary branches (0.53**) and tassel area index (0.63**), and negatively correlated with plant height (−0.45**) and yield (−0.39**). Tassel area index was negatively correlated with plant height (−0.63**) and yield (−0.55**), as were number of branches and Leaf Area Index (0.39**). Number of primary branches showed medium correlation with plant height (−0.43**). Test weight correlated negatively with plant height, ear height, yield, leaf area index (LAI) and 1000-kernel weight. Because a number of these traits are highly heritable, these correlations could be used as a basis for indirect selection of special features in maize breeding programs.