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  • Author or Editor: P. Kovács-Pálffy x
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The aim of the present study is a better understanding of the distribution and formation of salt efflorescences by mineralogical examination. Dominant sodium sulphate and sodium chloride surface efflorescences were selected for investigation. 24 samples were collected between 1999 and 2005 from 16 sites. The soil types were solonchak and meadow solonetz.Basic soil and groundwater analyses were performed according to the standard methods. Minerals were determined by X-ray diffractometry and SEM combined with microanalysis. The evaporation experiments were carried out in a Sanyo Versatile 350 HT environmental test chamber.It was concluded that common sulphate salts form rare and unique mineral associations on salt affected soils in Hungary.Comparing the groundwater compositions and the mineral associations of surface efflorescences or that of precipitated evaporites of groundwaters, the conclusion can be drawn that groundwater composition is reflected much better by the mineral association of experimentally precipitated evaporates of the groundwater than by the mineral associations of surface efflorescences. These differences suggest that the soil matrix may have an effect on the crystallization of minerals (e.g. gypsum, thenardite) in the efflorescences. The differences also suggest that in the surface efflorescences the precipitation process does not come to the end in all cases (minerals with high solubility are missing).Concerning the data on groundwater level depths in case of different (sodium carbonate versus sodium sulphate and sodium chloride) efflorescences, there is a tendency of declining groundwater table in the sequence of these soils. This difference can be explained by the difference (increase) in the solubility of various salt minerals.It was recognized that the change in the major component of surface efflorescenes in time (i.e. the sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate chloride versus sodium sulphate efflorescences before and after 1998) can be explained by the decline of the groundwater level and by the decreasing hydromorphic influence in the lowland area during the 19th and 20th century.Finally it can be stated that the presented research — which mainly focused on mineralogical aspects — has contributed to the earlier knowledge on surface salt efflorescences, which was based only on their chemical composition.

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Various cation-exchanged montmorillonites (Li+, Na+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ag+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Al3+, Pb2+ and NH4+) were prepared from calcium montmorillonite and their properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The two methods give information on the cation exchange in the interlayer space only. X-ray diffraction studies at room temperature are mainly suitable for estimation of the exchange of cations of different valencies. At 500C, when the structure is completely collapsed, the d value of montmorillonite depends on the non-hydrated ionic radius of the interlayer cation, but the measurement interval is limited for fine interpretation. The thermoanalytical method is suitable for a better distinction of different exchangeable cations of higher hydration energy on the basis of the DTG or DDTG curve.

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