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Microcalorimeters to monitor the heat dissipation of bench-scale animal cell cultures on line and in real time require a continuous circuit between the vessel measuring heat flow rate and the bioreactor. The modifications to the transmission lines and calorimetric heat exchanger were to: (i) reverse the usual upward direction of the cell suspension in the flow vessel to downwards; (ii) install an in situ washing/cleaning facility; (iii) use low diffusivity PEEK material; and (iv) maintain thermal equilibration by water-jacketing the transmission tubing. Chemical calibration showed that there was more than a 20% difference between the physical volume and the effective thermal volume. An appropriate thermodynamic system was defined in order to permit enthalpy balance studies.

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Neutron activation analysis is an appropriate method for the determination of the excretion by infants of enriched stable isotopes which have been added to synthetic milks for assessment of elemental bioavailability.58Fe enrichments in diet and faeces have been determined by instrumental NAA and a radiochemical procedure established for determination of65Cu enrichments. Conditions for the latter facilitate determination of both stable Cu isotopes, thereby providing results for the total concentration of this element. Appearance of added stable isotopes in samples collected between carmine red markers has been confirmed, and the method applied to studies of Fe and Cu absorption.

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Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling).


Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD’s relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming.


A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment – Revised (VGFA-R).


The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant.


Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.

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