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Aiming the use of the sewage sludge produced in one of the largest Brazilian wastewater treatment stations as a raw material for the ceramic industry, the sintering process of the ashes produced from its calcination was evaluated by heating microscopy thermal analysis (HMTA). From the microprocessed images, a method was developed to obtain HMTA dimensional change curves as a function of temperature, equivalent to those usually obtained from dilatometers or by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). The final product after sintering at 1050°C, characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive energy, indicates the presence of a vitreous phase containing phosphorus, which explains the good sintering properties of the studied calcined sludge, as shown from its HMTA dimensional change curve.

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The treatment of the effluents of dairy product industries containing lactose is done by a biological process, which reduces considerably the original amount of that sugar. Although the final residual content of lactose is small after treatment, it may cause the eutrophication and/or the superfertilization of the water, which provokes vegetation growth on the water surface, hindering the navigability and increasing the consumption of the dissolved oxygen necessary to the life of the fishes of the river or sea where the treated effluent is poured. In dairy industry, after proper initial processing steps of waste treatment, lactose, as it is water soluble, may still be present in the outgoing effluents. A complementary step by using organophilic clay adsorption, as a further treatment of these effluents, may enhance antipollution procedures, decreasing its final content in the effluents. The present paper deals with the characterization, by thermal analysis of different lactose products, which may be present in the different processing steps as it dissolves in water and then it is recrystallized from it, as well as after being adsorbed by organophilic clay from those effluents, which are very diluted lactose aqueous solutions.

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Organoclays are used in cleaning natural waters from dissolved hydrocarbons by secondary sorption. Aiming future applications in this field, a Brazilian polycationic bentonite was used to prepare HDTMA organoclays, by using different quaternary ammonium salt loadings and clay content slips, to evaluate how these conditions may affect their sorption properties. The organoclays were characterized by CHN analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. For secondary sorption tests, to compare with published studies, toluene was used as a reference sorbate. Characterization and sorption results indicate that the Brazilian bentonite organoclays prepared in this study have a potential industrial use in environmental applications.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Caroline A. Pinto, J. Dweck, J. J. Sansalone, F. K. Cartledge, M. E. Tittlebaum, and P. M. Büchler

Summary This paper presents a study of a cement-based solidification/stabilization process of storm water runoff solid residuals by non-conventional differential thermal analysis (NCDTA). The study was used to investigate the early hydration stages of a type I Portland cement containing the raw residual, two fractions of the residuals (coarse and fine), and two additives (quicklime and sodium bentonite). During these stages the fine fraction of the residuals retards the hydration reactions more than the coarse one, and both fractions have components that are reactive during the hydration process. When sodium bentonite is present in the pastes, the higher the initial cement content of the pastes, the lesser is the reactivity of the residuals. The presence of quicklime, which undergoes simultaneous highly exothermal hydration, accelerates the cement hydration reactions as well as those due to the presence of the residual solids. In these quicklime-containing compositions, the effect of sodium bentonite is similar to that when no quicklime is added, except when the whole residuals are used.

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