The global crisis of 2007–2009 can be viewed as three interdependent and mutually reinforcing crises: a financial crisis, a liquidity crisis, and a crisis in the real economy. The ten East European countries that are now EU members were hit first by the global liquidity crisis, then by dramatic declines in capital inflows and plunging demand for their exports. Different impacts among the ten are explained by such factors as their exchange rate regimes, the extent to which households found it advantageous to rely on foreign-currency loans and the appropriateness of fiscal and monetary policies prior to the crisis. Since Western Europe’s recovery and growth are likely to be slow, in the future East European countries will have to rely relatively more on internally-generated sources of productivity growth and enhanced global competitiveness.
Authors:J. Šesták, J. Mareš, P. Hubík, and I. Proks
The works of Lazare and Sadi Carnots are reviewed emphasizing their contribution to the caloric theory of heat, which is consequently
analyzed in terms of an alternative thermodynamic approach. In the framework of the caloric theory the elementary derivation
of the efficiency of real heat engines, ηK=1−tr(T2/T1), is given which is a direct consequence of linearity of Fourier’s law of heat transfer.
Authors:B. Hlaváček, J. Šesták, L. Koudelka, P. Mošner, and J. J. Mareš
Summary The forms of vibrations and displacements of particles in amorphous structures have been investigated. The particles, moving on highly non-linear amplitude, are responsible for the creation of disordered structures of amorphous bodies. The non-linear oscillators, even if 'few' in concentration, are characterized by unpredictable trajectories in phase space. The non-linear oscillators are fully developed in the liquid state above the crossover temperature Tcr and between Tcr and Tg their number decreases. Under Tg they completely disappear. The interconnection between the linear oscillators in blocks plays the most important role in the characteristic time spectra in liquid state. Using the additive properties of elements polarizibilities, the number of acoustical units in individual blocks at Tcr is estimated to be about 600 units. The diameter of blocks at Tcr was estimated to be about 1.8 nm. Even if the non-linear high amplitude motions disappear at solidification, the remnants of structural irregularity remain and the disordered structure of glass is formed.