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  • Author or Editor: P. Mishra x
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Chakaiya variety of amla was investigated for its phenolic contents, and extracted phenolics from amla powder were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. RSM (response surface methodology) was used to determine the optimum conditions for maximum recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,6-diphenyl picryl hydrazil free radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity. The gelatine coating on banana slices before frying significantly reduced (approximately 60%) the fat uptake from oil during frying in comparison to control. The reduction of particle size to the nano range was found to be effective to load the antioxidants effectively. Antioxidant extracted from amla reduced the rate of oxidation of oil during frying and so it may be a better alternative of synthetic antioxidant in food products.

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The knowledge of radioactive and stable elements partitioning to natural sediment systems is essential for modelling their environmental fate. A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, 241Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 10 cm deep sediment sample collected in the Tyrrhenian sea (Gaeta Gulf, Italy) in front of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma-spectrometry. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) was used for the chemical separation of the alpha-emitters: after electrodeposition alpha-spectrometry was carried out. Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Ba, Ti, Sr, Cu, Ni) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the radionuclides.

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The coordination complex of Cu (II) with the Schiff base derived from 4-chloroaniline with salicylaldehyde have been synthesized and characterized by micro analytical data; FT–IR, UV–Vis, FAB-mass and thermal analysis studies. Thermal data show degradation of complexes. We carried out thermal analysis at three different heating rates viz. 5, 10 and 20 °C per min. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energy (E∗), entropy of activation (ΔS∗), enthalpy of activation (ΔH∗) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG∗) have been calculated with the help of TG, DTA and DTG curves using Coats–Redfern method. The stoichiometry of the complexes are in 1:2 (M:L) molar ratio. Synthesized complex has been tested for their reactivity and substitution behaviour.

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Synergism is observed in the extraction of uranium(VI) by the binary mixture of Aliquat 336 and PC 88A (2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester) from 0.5–6M HNO3 solution showing a maximum at 3M. In H2SO4 medium, antagonism at lower acidity and slight synergism at higher acid concentrations have been observed. Synergism occurs in the extraction of Am(III) from nitrate solutions when a mixture of Aliquat 336 and TOPO is used.

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Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from aqueous phosphoric acid solution by triisodecylamine (Alamine 310), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), di-n-pentyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures in benzene in the range 1–10M aqueous H3PO4 shows that extraction is maximum (80%) in the higher acidity range 6–8 M. Extraction of this metal ion by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinicacid (Cyanex 301) and its mixtures studied in the range 0.2–1.0M aqueous H3PO4 is far from being quantitative. Antagonism in extraction by mixtures of extractants is observed in most of the cases. Extraction of molybdenum(VI) under identical conditions shows that it is quantitative in the lower acidity range upto 2M H3PO4. Separation of uranium(VI) from molybdenum(VI) is feasible by Alamine 310, TBP and DPSO, the order of efficiency being TBP>DPSO>Alamine 310.

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Quantitative extraction of uranium(VI) is observed from 0.2M HCl by 5% (v/v) Cyanex 301. The extraction decreases with increasing acid concentration. Mixtures of Cyanex 301 with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), didecyl sulfoxide (DDSO) and Alamine 308 result in significant synergism in the extraction process, where a species of the type UO2R2. L is proposed to be extracted [RH=Cyanex 301 and L=TBP, DDSO or Alamine 308]. Significant extraction of uranium(VI) by 5% (v/v) Alamine 308 is observed at and above 2M HCl, which increases with further increase in acidity attaining a maximum at 6M, after which a slight decrease in extration is observed. Mixtures of Alamine 308 with TBP or DDSO result in a synergism, where a species of the type (R 3 NH)2 UO2Cl4. Lis extracted. [R 3 N=Alamine 308, L=TBP or DDSO]. Mixtures of Alamine 308 and Cyanex 301 at 2M HCl result in a profound antagonism in the extraction of uranium(VI).

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Abstract  

Extraction studies of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) with organophosphoric, phosphinic acid and its thiosubstituted derivatives have been carried out from 0.1–1.0M HCl solutions. The extracted species are proposed to be UO2R2 and MoO2 CIR on the basis of slope analysis for uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI), respectively. The extraction efficiencies of PC-88A, Cyanex 272, Cyanex 301 and Cyanex 302 in the extraction of molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) are compared. Synergistic effects have been studied with binary mixtures of extractants. Separation of molybdenum(VI) from uranium(VI) is feasible by Cyanex 301 from 1M HCl, the separation factor log being 2.3.

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