Chakaiya variety of amla was investigated for its phenolic contents, and extracted phenolics from amla powder were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. RSM (response surface methodology) was used to determine the optimum conditions for maximum recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,6-diphenyl picryl hydrazil free radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity. The gelatine coating on banana slices before frying significantly reduced (approximately 60%) the fat uptake from oil during frying in comparison to control. The reduction of particle size to the nano range was found to be effective to load the antioxidants effectively. Antioxidant extracted from amla reduced the rate of oxidation of oil during frying and so it may be a better alternative of synthetic antioxidant in food products.
The knowledge of radioactive and stable elements partitioning to natural sediment systems is essential for modelling their environmental fate. A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, 241Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 10 cm deep sediment sample collected in the Tyrrhenian sea (Gaeta Gulf, Italy) in front of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma-spectrometry. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) was used for the chemical separation of the alpha-emitters: after electrodeposition alpha-spectrometry was carried out. Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Ba, Ti, Sr, Cu, Ni) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the radionuclides.
The coordination complex of Cu (II) with the Schiff base derived from 4-chloroaniline with salicylaldehyde have been synthesized and characterized by micro analytical data; FT–IR, UV–Vis, FAB-mass and thermal analysis studies. Thermal data show degradation of complexes. We carried out thermal analysis at three different heating rates viz. 5, 10 and 20 °C per min. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energy (E∗), entropy of activation (ΔS∗), enthalpy of activation (ΔH∗) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG∗) have been calculated with the help of TG, DTA and DTG curves using Coats–Redfern method. The stoichiometry of the complexes are in 1:2 (M:L) molar ratio. Synthesized complex has been tested for their reactivity and substitution behaviour.
Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from aqueous phosphoric acid solution by triisodecylamine (Alamine 310), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), di-n-pentyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures in benzene in the range 1–10M aqueous H3PO4 shows that extraction is maximum (80%) in the higher acidity range 6–8 M. Extraction of this metal ion by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinicacid (Cyanex 301) and its mixtures studied in the range 0.2–1.0M aqueous H3PO4 is far from being quantitative. Antagonism in extraction by mixtures of extractants is observed in most of the cases. Extraction of molybdenum(VI) under identical conditions shows that it is quantitative in the lower acidity range upto 2M H3PO4. Separation of uranium(VI) from molybdenum(VI) is feasible by Alamine 310, TBP and DPSO, the order of efficiency being TBP>DPSO>Alamine 310.
Synergism is observed in the extraction of uranium(VI) by the binary mixture of Aliquat 336 and PC 88A (2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester) from 0.5–6M HNO3 solution showing a maximum at 3M. In H2SO4 medium, antagonism at lower acidity and slight synergism at higher acid concentrations have been observed. Synergism occurs in the extraction of Am(III) from nitrate solutions when a mixture of Aliquat 336 and TOPO is used.
Authors:Shuddhodan P. Mishra, Diwakar Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Prasad, R. S. Dubey, and Manisha Mishra
uptake of indigenously synthesized amorphous stannic and zirconium phosphate
was assessed for, one of the important fission fragment, cesium from aqueous
solutions using a radiotracer technique. A virtual increase in sorptive
concentration (from 1.0 . 10-8 to 1.0 . 10-2
mol . dm-3) and pH (from 2.4 to 10.2) and temperature
(from 303 to 333 K) enhanced the uptake of cesium on stannic phosphate.
However, the extremely high degree of uptake of cesium on zirconium phosphate
was almost unaffected with the dilution beyond 10-5 mol .
dm-3 and pH (i.e., from 2.4 to 10.2) and temperature (from 303 to
323 K). Irreversible uptake occurring for these solids follow the Freundlich
adsorption isotherm and the presence of several complexing agents viz.,
sulphate, phosphate, glycine and EDTA did not affect appreciably the uptake of
cesium on zirconium phosphate but it did affect for stannic phosphate system.
Both these solids showed good radiation stability towards a 11.1 GBq Ra-Be
neutron source having neutron flux ca. 3.2 . 106 n .
cm-2 . s-1 and associated with a nominalg-dose of ca.
1.72 Gy/h, at least for the uptake of cesium.
Authors:V. Pachauri, V. Mishra, P. Mishra, A.K. Singh, S. Singh, R. Singh, and N.K. Singh
The present report is in continuation to our earlier reports on the identification and fine mapping of three aroma QTLs in basmati rice using a bi-parental mapping population derived from a cross between Pusa 1121, a basmati rice variety, and Pusa 1342, a non-aromatic rice variety. We used a combination of genetic mapping and transcriptome profiling to narrow down the number of differentially expressed genes in rice to identify potential candidate genes for rice grain aroma. Highly aromatic and non-aromatic recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were identified through sensory analysis of mature milled grains. RILs with similar phenotypes were bulked together using bulk segregant analysis approach which drastically reduced the number of differentially expressed genes from 4016 to 1344. The transcriptome profiles generated were analyzed through Affymetrix rice genome array containing probe sets designed from all the predicted rice gene sequences. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling revealed one down-regulated gene co-located in QTL region aro3.1 on chromosome 3, eight genes co-located in the aro4.1 region on chromosome 4 and the badh2 gene on chromosome 8 to be differentially expressed in the aromatic parent and aromatic bulk. These genes are the most suitable candidates for future validation and development of new molecular functional markers to facilitate marker assisted breeding.