The influence of immersion fluid temperature on the development of the chicken embryo was studied on the day most commonly used for treating incubated eggs in teratological trials. Embryonated eggs were immersed in tap water for 30 min on the 12th day of incubation at 22–25 °C or at incubation temperature without a waiting time or after 30 min. The incubation was then continued and the eggs were processed on day 19 of the incubation period. Treatment of eggs at 22–25 °C caused a significant increase in embryonic mortality, while the 30-min waiting time did not exert an influence on embryogenesis.
The present work aims to raise awareness of the issue of patient safety communication in multicultural and multilingual healthcare settings and to present strategies on how to overcome emerging cultural and language barriers and enable healthcare providers to reduce the risk of miscommunication, prevent inequalities and disparities, and provide their patients with safe and quality care. It also strives to present the policies and measures the United States and Canada have implemented and the strategies U.S. experts have developed to advance effective communication between provider and patient.
The literature review was conducted on academic works and publications by health associations, institutes of health, and government departments in topics such as adverse events in health care and strategies to reduce cross-cultural miscommunications and on guides for hospitals.
Cultural diversity in a patient population, language barriers, and a lack of effective communication can impose an increased threat on an individual's health. In order to radically decrease the incidence of adverse events, policies and systems on how to manage multinational and multilingual medical environments should be created at a national level. Cultural competence is also key to delivering care that meets patients' social and cultural needs; furthermore, developing a language access plan and providing language assistance (interpretation, translation) for those in need can greatly contribute to providing quality care.
Clear communication is key to quality care and patient safety in multicultural and multilingual healthcare environments, but to significantly reduce the incidence of adverse events, policies and systems should be created at a national level.
The N, P and K effects of mineral fertilisers were examined in a long-term fertilisation experiment set up on chernozem soil with forest residues. The data from 20 experiments on winter wheat and 24 on maize were evaluated as a function of the year, the forecrop and the soil nutrient supplies.Of the two plant species, N effects were found to be greater for winter wheat. When sown after maize, the N responses of both wheat and maize were almost 1 t ha
greater than when winter wheat was the forecrop. The positive effect of phosphorus was only significant in winter wheat, while that of potassium was not significant for either species.In a wheat-wheat sequence, N fertiliser alone was only effective in wet years. In winter wheat, no phosphorus effects could be detected in any year without N fertilisation. In years with extreme weather conditions, P effects were only significant when wheat was grown after cereals.In dry years nitrogen only had a significant effect on the yield of maize after wheat if it was combined with phosphorus and potassium. In years with average or above-average rainfall maize was able to extract sufficient phosphorus for its development even from soils with poor P supplies; yield increases were limited by other factors.
Cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) is an excellent source of resistance against several wheat diseases and quality parameters. Semi-dwarf einkorn lines with good crossability were identified in order to produce Triticum turgidum × T. monococcum synthetic amphiploids. Two combinations were used to develop the amphiploids: durum × einkorn and emmer × einkorn.After the genome duplication of F1 seeds, highly fertile amphiploids were developed. The AuBAm genome structure of the progenies was confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).Lines derived from durum × einkorn and emmer × einkorn crosses were studied for agronomic performance, disease resistance and genetic variability. Both amphiploid combinations showed excellent resistance against certain wheat diseases (leaf rust, powdery mildew), but not against fusarium. The durum-based synthetic amphiploid lines showed a higher level of phenotypic diversity. The newly produced T. turgidum × T. monococcum synthetic hexaploids are promising genetic resources for wheat breeding. Selected durum × einkorn lines are currently used in bread wheat improvement to transfer the useful properties of einkorn into cultivated hexaploid wheat via ‘bridge-crossing’.
The reproductive toxicity of lead acetate and of a fungicide formulation (Dithane M-45) containing 80% mancozeb was studied on rats. Lead acetate was applied in the feed in the following dose groups: control, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/kg of diet. The three treatment groups received, in addition to the above doses of lead acetate, 4,500 mg/kg Dithane M-45 in the diet. The method was based on the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 415 (1981). Clinical symptoms and mortality were not found in the parent generation. The body weight of female animals decreased significantly before the pregnancy period. This tendency was also seen in males after the combination treatment. At the two high dose levels a remarkable body weight increase was seen in the female animals during the lactation period. As a result of treatment, decreased body weight of offspring was measured during the lactation period. No gross pathological changes were seen. Histological examination showed general tubulonephrosis in the experimental animals. It can be established that the administration of Dithane M-45 did not enhance the reproductive toxicity of lead acetate.
The aim of the present study was to develop a treatment supporting the membrane of ram spermatozoa. Semen of different ejaculates collected from breeding rams was mixed andsamples of 109 sperm cells per ml and Tris-egg yolk extender were completed with the following antioxidants: a-tocopherol acetate (E), glutathione peroxidase (GP), Aromex® (AR), resveratrol (R), resveratrol + vitamin E (RE), resveratrol + Aromex® (RAR), resveratrol + GP (RGP). Peroxidation was evaluated by the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) during incubation for 30, 60 and 120 min at 37°C as well as during a 24-h incubation at 5°C. The success of preservation was checked in a 9-day-long period by observing the acrosomal defects and the motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of MDA was 4.06 nmol/109 spermatozoa in samples treated with 15 µg R while the control sample contained 69.79 nmol MDA per 109 spermatozoa after 24-h incubation. Following 30-, 60- and 120-min storage the concentration of MDA in control and R-treated samples was 25.89, 36.91, 49.57 and 3.69, 3.74, 3.74 nmol/109 spermatozoa, respectively. Moreover, a significantly higher proportion of motile sperm cells was observed in the treated than in the control samples. The frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in the treated groups than in the control. These results indicate that RAR treatment can improve the effects of ram semen preservation.
HYPERMET PC is a user-friendly -ray spectrum analysis software package developed at Budapest, mainly for the purpose of prompt- neutron activation analysis (PGAA). The peak fitting algorithm is an improved version of the well-known HYPERMET code, and contains a partial peak-parameter calibration to describe peak shapes more accurately in the wide energy range typical for prompt- spectra. A nuclide identification routine has also been developed using a new PGAA library, shown in a parallel paper. The new module for quantitative PGAA includes all the features necessary to obtain concentration values for elements.
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is a multifactorially determined process of the brain parenchyma. Among other factors, vasogenic causes have been shown to play a role in its development. The aim of the present work was to assess whether cerebral tissue oxygen saturation is influenced by administration of acetazolamide in septic patients compared to controls.
The drought stress tolerance of three accessions of
Vis. (Ae225, Ae550 and Ae1050) and two varieties of
L. (Sakha and Cappelle Desprez) was compared. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress, changes in the malonic dialdehyde (MDA) content, formed during the lipid peroxidation induced by stress situations, and the inducibility of electron removal systems appearing as an alternative to CO
fixation were chosen for the present investigations. Drought stress was simulated using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The order of drought stress tolerance obtained correlated well with the original habitats ofthe varieties. The present results provide a clear illustration of the fact that tolerant varieties respond differently for the parameters tested, suggesting that their resistance can be attributed to different mechanisms. Abbreviations:CuZnSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Cu and Zn cofactor metals, MnSOD and FeSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Mn and Fe cofactor metals, PVP25= polyvinyl pyrrolidone 25, MDA=malonic dialdehyde, PEG=polyethylene glycol, TCA=trichloro acetic acid, TBA=thiobarbituric acid, ΔF=F
=maximal fluorescence yield, F
=fluorescence yield in steady state