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  • Author or Editor: P. Novaković x
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Acidic and enzymatic coagulation of milk are complex processes which proceed in several phases and are dependent upon many different parameters. The formation of coagulum during lactic-acid fermentation is in fact acidic coagulation of milk. It occurs because of an increase in concentration of lactic acid, which causes a decrease in pH. Enzymatic coagulation of milk has been analytically described by means of mathematical models by many authors. Although enzymatic and acidic coagulation of milk do not proceed according to identical physical and chemical rules, it is possible to compare them kinetically. The aim of this paper was to combine the kinetics of enzymatic and acidic coagulation of milk and to mathematically present the changes that develop during lactic-acid fermentation of milk. The models presented in this paper enable a more complex mathematical analysis of the coagulation of the protein content of milk during lactic-acid fermentation. Application of the models enables the analysis and comparison of the kinetics of coagulation in different types of milk and various types of fermented dairy products manufactured with lactic acid bacteria. Mathematical combination of coagulation kinetics of the protein complex in milk with reological characteristics of the obtained fermented dairy products enables easier defining of parameters for lactic acid fermentation.

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Research was carried out to define the hygienic propriety of thermally treated eggs, i.e. eggs treated at pasteurization temperatures and those stored frozen. The average values of the number of the bacteria in the pasteurized yolk and egg white were log 4.9 and 5.1, respectively, those in the frozen-pasteurized yolk and egg white were log 5.5 and 4.8 and in the frozen yolk and white were log 7.0 and 5.9. The contaminants Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp., Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica were tested for 306 samples of pasteurized, frozen and pasteurized and frozen products of eggs, egg-yolks and egg-whites. Presence of Salmonella spp. in the pasteurized yolk was 12%, Clostridium spp. 16%, E. coli 16% and Proteus spp. 14%, but in the pasteurized egg white those bacteria were present in 10.8%, 15.3%, 13.8% and 10.0%. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in yolk at 4.6 and in white 4.0% and Clostridium perfringens 4.0 and 1.5%, respectively. The bacteriological flora indicated that the degree of contamination of egg-products depends directly on the degree of initial contamination and correlates with the technological egg-treatment processes applied.

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