Authors:T. Góral, H. Wiśniewska, P. Ochodzki, D. Walentyn-Góral and M. Kwiatek
Reaction of 19 breeding lines and two cultivars of winter triticale to Fusarium head blight was evaluated. Lines were sown in field experiments in two locations — Radzików and Cerekwica. Triticale heads were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum mixture. Average FHB severity in Radzików ranged from 0 to 13.3% and was lower than in Cerekwica (2.0–22.3%). Fusarium damaged kernels proportion was 10-fold higher in Cerekwica than in Radzików. FDK ranged from 7.3 to 47.0% in Cerekwica and from 0.3 to 5.6% in Radzików. Differences between lines for FBH and FDK were statistically significant for data from both locations. Ergosterol, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol were detected in all samples of triticale grain except one for NIV. Variation range of ERG was 2.22–21.21 in Cerekwica and 1.99–7.67 in Radzików. For DON, variation range was wider in Cerekwica (0.39–11.49 ppm) than in Radzików (0.30–2.98 ppm). NIV concentration was higher in Radzików and varied from 0.03 to 1.62 ppm, and in Cerekwica from 0 to 0.56 ppm. Head infection correlated significantly with FDK and DON concentration. FDK correlated significantly with ERG and DON content for all samples. Lines with all types of FHB resistance were identified.
Authors:K. Gromadzka, M. Wit, K. Górna, J. Chełkowski, A. Waśkiewicz, P. Ochodzki and R. Warzecha
Two Fusarium species were identified in mouldy maize ears with the highest frequency during 2005–2014 in 7 seasons: F. subglutinans (3.1–42.0%) and F. verticillioides (44.1–70.3%). Two other species were also found but with lower frequency: F. graminearum (1.0–13.0%) and F. poae (1–45.7%). In 2005 fumonisin FB1, and in 2013 and 2014 three fumonisins (FBs) – FB1, FB2 and FB3 — were identified in harvest samples. The Fusarium-damaged kernel (FDK) fraction contained almost the totality of mycotoxins (90.0–95.0%), while healthy looking kernels (HLK) contained only below 5.0 to 10.0%. Kernels naturally infected by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum contained (in mg kg−1) up to 710.00 of fumonisin B1, up to 209.72 of fumonisin B2 and up to 35.72 of fumonisin B3.