Authors:S. Gonda, L. Tóth, P. Parizsa, M. Nyitrai and G. Vasas
Five species of Plantago genus, namely P. lanceolata, P. major, P. media, P. altissima and P. maritima were screened for iridoid content (CE-MEKC), total caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside (CPG) content and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC assay). The five species could be distinguished by TLC pattern analysis in a single run in a system commonly used for quality management of P. lanceolata leaves, as shown by cluster analysis of major bands; with the exception, that P. altissima and P. lanceolata did not show enough pattern difference to be fully separated. P. maritima was shown to have the highest antioxidant capacity (0.42 μmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g DW), and the highest level of CPGs (4.29%). P. altissima was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from P. lanceolata with repsect to iridoid content (aucubin 0.55 ± 0.04%, 0.68 ± 0.23%, catalpol 0.66 ± 0.13% and 0.89 ± 0.22%, respectively), CPG content (2.40 ± 0.38% and 2.54 ± 0.56%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (0.2206 ± 0.0290 and 0.2428 ± 0.0191 μmol AAEAC/g DW). The presented data show the potency of medicinal use of Hungarian wild populations of the studied five species, especially in the case of P. maritima, and that P. altissima can be a potential replacement of P. lanceolata in herbal mixtures.
Authors:O. Farkas, Gyöngyi Gyémant, Gréta Hajdú, S. Gonda, P. Parizsa, T. Horgos, Ágnes Mosolygó and G. Vasas
Waterbloom samples of Microcystis aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii were collected from a variety of ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Hungary. Samples were tested with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization — time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the microcystin forms. The concentration of the microcystins was measured with capillary electrophoresis and the toxicity was tested by sinapis test. DNA was extracted from the samples and tested using a range of primers linked to the biosynthesis of microcystin. All of the fourteen collected samples gave positive results for the presence of the mcy genes with PCR products with sizes between of 425 and 955 bp, respectively, indicating the presence of the genes implicated in the production of microcystins. The results showed that a wide range of microcystin (MC) forms were detected in the Microcystis containing samples, among which MC-LR, -RR, and -YR were the most common. The highest MC concentration was 15,701 mg g−1, which was detected in an angling pond. The samples containing Planktothrix agardhii were less toxic, and the most common form in this species was the Asp3-MC-LR.