Two experiments were performed to evaluate the normal development of the rabbit heart. In the first experiment the most intensive period of heart development was determined in rabbit embryos. The second experiment studied the most intensive period of heart development, determined in the first experiment, by concentrated sampling at 8-hour intervals. After cutting open the uterine wall opposite the discoid placenta, rabbit embryos were removed from the ampullae of the uterus using capillary tubes, under stereomicroscope at fivefold magnification. The embryos were subsequently placed into 4% formalin solution for 24 h. After fixation, slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin were made for histological examination. In the first experiment 51 embryos were examined, while during the second experiment a total of 113 embryos, representing different stages of development, were collected. Finally the data obtained on rabbits were compared with the well-known development of the heart in humans and mice.
A multiple cardiac anomaly in sheep is presented to show how complicated the result of abnormal development can be. The heart of a 12-hour-old sheep was fixed in 8% formaldehyde solution and subsequently dissected by an anatomical method, and the abnormalities were recorded on digital pictures. The abnormal anatomy is described and compared with the simple developmental anomalies. Developmental abnormalities were found in the distal portion of the bulbus, the aortic arches and the interatrial septum. A special type of the double-outlet right ventricle was observed, which was not a real double-outlet ventricle because it occurred in combination with pulmonary atresia. Coarctation of the aorta was seen, the ductus arteriosus was absent, and there were five vessels originating from the aortic arch instead of one vessel seen in normal cases, as a result of the abnormal development of the aortic arches.
Klaus-Dieter Budras, Patrick H. McCarthy, Wolfgang Fricke, Renate Richter: Anatomy of the Dog. An Illustrated Text. 4th edition with Aaron Horowitz and Rolf Berg. Schlütersche GmbH & Co. KG Verlag und Druckerei, Hannover, Germany. 222 pages, 71 large-sized colour plates including several illustrations, radiographs, drawings and photographs. 9¾ × 13½", hardcover. ISBN 3-87706-619-4. Price: Ł54 / € 86. Kees J. Dik: Atlas of Diagnostic Radiology of the Horse - Diseases of the Front and Hind Limbs. Second extended and revised edition, Schlütersche, Hannover, 2002. 300 pages with 702 radiographs, 82 drawings. 9¾ ×13½", hardcover. ISBN 3-87706-651-8. Price:€ 144 / USD 179.5 / £ 89.
The morphology of canine platelets (changes in size, shape, staining characteristics, degree of activation and clump formation, distribution of granules, appearance of vacuoles on Giemsa-stained smears) was investigated in 20 healthy control and 181 diseased dogs. In the group of the sick dogs 84 animals suffered from disorders affecting directly the haematological parameters or the haematopoietic organs such as bleeding, thymic haemorrhage, haemolytic disorders, lymphoma, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and other 97 dogs were affected by other diseases (hepatopathy, nephropathy, hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasm, skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, Cushing'ssyndrome, sepsis). The alterations found in platelet morphology were not specific for any disorder. The most common platelet abnormalities were polychromasia and the presence of giant platelets. These changes occurred in a high number in disorders accompanied by bleeding or haemolysis. Anisocytosis was the most frequent finding in hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasms and in certain endocrinopathies. Microcytosis was observed in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, hepatic neoplasms and endocrine disorders. Extreme platelet activation was common in haemolysis, hepatopathies, neoplastic diseases and sepsis. Vacuolisation was present in thymic haemorrhage, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. A new morphologic phenomenon, i.e. a ring-like formation of granules, was described in the cytoplasm of the platelets both in healthy and diseased animals. In addition, two forms of pathologic granulation were also described for the first time in Giemsa-stained blood smears: the pseudonuclear and the spot-like formation of granules, which were observed especially in disorders affecting the blood cells. The granulation and morphological characteristics of platelets on smears stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS) were also studied. Three localisations of granulation were observed, such as peripheral, eccentric and diffuse. The ratio of PAS-positive and -negative platelets was evaluated in several diseases. Our findings support the diagnostic value of platelet evaluation by light microscopy and help clinicians/clinical pathologists to understand why morphologic changes of thrombocytes might be expected in several diseases.
This paper presents the embryological and pathological features as well as the terminology and classification of common atrioventricular canal, a type of endocardial cushion defect. The authors give a complete description of an extremely rare congenital cardiac malformation in an equine neonate. The diagnosis of a complete, balanced common atrioventricular canal of type C in Rastelli’s classification scheme was based on two-dimensional, contrast and colour Doppler echocardiography and subsequent postmortem gross pathology. To support our diagnosis and study the pathophysiological effect of the alteration, physical examination, blood gas analysis and other laboratory tests, electrocardiography and thoracic radiography were also performed. Our search of the literature suggests that this type of developmental anomaly might account for a higher percentage of equine congenital cardiac defects than was thought earlier. We suppose that some previously described congenital heart abnormalities were misinterpreted: these anomalies could have actually represented some type of atrioventricular canal defect, resulting from the failure of the endocardial cushions to undergo complete and proper fusion.
The aim of our study was to investigate changes in psycho-physiological parameters evoked by short duration, intensive physical stress on university students practicing judo at different intensities and timely manner. Stability of posture, muscle strength (hand force exertions), attention concentration (choice reaction time), cardiac parameters, (ECG, heart rate, heart rate variability), and oxygen saturation were measured, cardiac state and stress index were computed before and after the physical stress. The actual psychic state of the subjects was evaluated using the Spielberger’s STPI-H Y-1 test which determined anxiety, curiosity, anger and depression level. Analysis of psychometric and physiologic parameters indicated significant correlations, among others, between force and cardiac stress (−), force and depression (−), anxiety and errors in actions (+), cardiac state and errors in action (−), cardiac state and depression (−). Paired samples tests showed the influence of intensive physical stress within groups of students, and independent samples tests made it possible to evaluate the power of medical and sport students, performing physical training at a significantly higher level than it is usual among the medical students. Our results proved that higher level physical training influences the psychic state advantageously, limits increases in cardiac stress level, and decreases susceptibility to anxiety and depression.
An 11-year-old, Hungarian half-bred stallion was presented with a history of mixed left hindlimb lameness of 6 months duration. Subchondral bone cyst of the medial femoral condyle and injury of the medial meniscus were diagnosed. Osteochondral autograft transplantation (mosaic arthroplasty) was performed, taking grafts from the less weight-bearing medial border of the medial femoral trochlea of the affected limb, and transplanting them into the cyst during arthroscopy. The lameness was evaluated prior to and one year after the operation with a motion analysis system during treadmill exercise. Considerable improvement of the lameness and the clinical signs as well as successful transplantation of the grafts, and a new hard joint cartilage surface of the medial femoral condyle could be detected during follow-up arthroscopy. Osteochondral autograft transplantation seems to bee a possible alternative for treating subchondral cystic lesions of the medial femoral condyle in horses. A new technique for the surgical treatment of a subchondral cystic lesion of the medial femoral condyle in the horse is described.
Hepatic artery thrombosis is a major cause of graft failure in liver transplantation. Use of donor interponates are common, but results are controversial because of necrosis or thrombosis after rejection. Reperfusion injury, hypoxia and free radical production determinate the survival. The aim of the study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate. Autologous, tubular graft lined with mesothelial cells, prepared from the posterior rectus fascia sheath, was used for iliac artery replacement in eight mongrel dogs for six months under immunosuppression. Patency rate was followed by Doppler ultrasound. Eight grafts remained patent and another two are patent after one year. The patency rate was good (median Doppler flow: 370 cm/sec) and there was no necrosis, thrombosis or aneurysmatic formation. The grafts showed viable morphology with neoangiogenesis, appearance of elastin, smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Electron microscopy showed intact mitochondrial structures without signs of hypoxia. Tissue oxygenation was good in all cases with normal (< 30 ng/ml) myeloperoxidase production. In conclusion, this autologous graft presents good long-term patency rate. Viability, arterialisation and low thrombogenicity are prognostic factors indicating usability of the graft in the clinical practice without the risk of rejection. Further investigations such as cell cultures and standardisation are necessary.
Foregoing researches made on the N/OFQ system brought up a possible role for this system in cardiovascular regulation. In this study we examined how N/OFQ levels of the blood plasma changed in acute cardiovascular diseases. Three cardiac patient groups were created: enzyme positive acute coronary syndrome (EPACS, n = 10), enzyme negative ACS (ENACS, n = 7) and ischemic heart disease (IHD, n = 11). We compared the patients to healthy control subjects (n = 31). We found significantly lower N/OFQ levels in the EPACS [6.86 (6.21–7.38) pg/ml], ENACS [6.97 (6.87–7.01) pg/ml and IHD groups [7.58 (7.23–8.20) pg/ml] compared to the control group [8.86 (7.27–9.83) pg/ml]. A significant correlation was detected between N/OFQ and white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), creatine kinase (CK), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and cholesterol levels in the EPACS group.Decreased plasma N/OFQ is closely associated with the presence of acute cardiovascular disease, and the severity of symptoms has a significant negative correlation with the N/OFQ levels. We believe that the rate of N/OFQ depression is in association with the level of ischemic stress and the following inflammatory response. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relevance and elucidate the exact effects of the ischemic stress on the N/OFQ system.