The aim of the present study was to develop a treatment supporting the membrane of ram spermatozoa. Semen of different ejaculates collected from breeding rams was mixed andsamples of 109 sperm cells per ml and Tris-egg yolk extender were completed with the following antioxidants: a-tocopherol acetate (E), glutathione peroxidase (GP), Aromex® (AR), resveratrol (R), resveratrol + vitamin E (RE), resveratrol + Aromex® (RAR), resveratrol + GP (RGP). Peroxidation was evaluated by the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) during incubation for 30, 60 and 120 min at 37°C as well as during a 24-h incubation at 5°C. The success of preservation was checked in a 9-day-long period by observing the acrosomal defects and the motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of MDA was 4.06 nmol/109 spermatozoa in samples treated with 15 µg R while the control sample contained 69.79 nmol MDA per 109 spermatozoa after 24-h incubation. Following 30-, 60- and 120-min storage the concentration of MDA in control and R-treated samples was 25.89, 36.91, 49.57 and 3.69, 3.74, 3.74 nmol/109 spermatozoa, respectively. Moreover, a significantly higher proportion of motile sperm cells was observed in the treated than in the control samples. The frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in the treated groups than in the control. These results indicate that RAR treatment can improve the effects of ram semen preservation.
Semen of an infertile Dutch White (Saanenthal) goat buck was examined. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed aberrations of the sperm tails resembling the so-called Dag or Dag-like defects described in several cattle breeds. Ejaculated semen showed that virtually all of the cells had strongly coiled or broken tails, or fractured midpieces. Ultrastructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uneven distribution of the mitochondria in the midpiece. Coiled tails were encapsulated by a common membrane, and dislocated axial fibres and different membranous structures were also present. The ultrastructural characteristics of the defective sperm tails, the missing parts of the axial fibre bundle and the misalignment of the mitochondria indicate that this first case reported in goat is similar to the Dag-like defect in cattle.
On the basis of recent observations it is supposed that seminal fluids may contain - mainly in hydroxymethyl groups - formaldehyde (HCHO) and quaternary ammonium compounds as potential HCHO generators, therefore, preliminary investigations were carried out for the identification of these compounds in pig seminal fluids using OPLC, HPLC and MALDI MS techniques. The fresh pig seminal fluid was frozen in liquid nitrogen, powdered and aliquots (0.25 g) were treated with 0.7 ml ethanolic dimedone solution. The suspension was centrifuged and the clear supernatant was used for analysis by OPLC or after dilution with HPLC or MALDI MS technique. After OPLC separation of formaldemethone the fully N-methylated compounds which are stayed on the start point were separated by OPLC using an other eluent system. It has been established that the HCHO is really a normal component of the pig seminal fluid, as well. It can be isolated and identified in dimedone adduct form. The measurable amount of HCHO depended on the concentration applied of dimedone. According to OPLC and MALDI MS investigations L-carnitine is the main quaternary ammonium compound in pig seminal fluid which can generate a protection of the sperm cells against environmental and other influences. Considerable differences have been found among individuals concerning concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in the seminal fluid of pigs.