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Abstract  

Instrumentation has been developed to perform uv-vis-nir absorbance measurements remotely and at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fiber-optic spectroscopy permits the interrogation of radioactive species within a glovebox enclosure at temperatures ranging from ambient to >100 °C. Spectral shifts as a function of metal-ligand coordination are used to compute thermodynamic free energies of reaction by matrix regression analysis. Pr3+ serves as a convenient analog for trivalent actinides without attendant radioactivity hazards, and recent results obtained from 20–95 °C with the Pr-acetate complexation system are presented. Preliminary experimentation on Am(III) hydrolysis is also described.

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Aroma is one of the first sensorial characteristics affecting the perception of quality of salted dried codfish. In this work, the volatile profile of different commercially available salted dried codfishes was characterized by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS. Samples of three species (Gadus morhua, Gadus macrocephalus and Theragra calchogramma), subjected to two curing processes (Traditional and Yellow curing) for different durations caught in distinct pools, were studied.Thirty compounds were fully characterized and 25 were tentatively identified and comprising several chemical classes (amines, hydrocarbons, esters, chlorinated compounds, aldehydes, aromatic, alcohols, acids, sulphur compounds, ethers, ketones and terpenes), with 26 of them being reported for the first time in codfish. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed major differences for the yellow cured sample and for T. chalcogramma species. Yellow cured codfish presented a higher content of compounds of almost all classes. T. chalcogramma exhibited a high content of terpenes and a low amount of aldehydes.

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Abstract  

This paper presents a method to study cement hydration at ambient temperatures by using a micro processed non-conventional differential thermal analysis (DTA) system, which was used to evaluate the solidification/stabilization process of tannery wastes produced in the leather industry. The DTA curves of pastes composed by slag cement, Wyoming bentonite and waste are obtained in real time and used to analyze the heat effects of the reactions during the first 24 h of hydration. By applying a deconvolution method to separate the overlapped DTA peaks, the energy released in the several hydration stages may be estimated and consequently, the effects of each component on the solidification process. The highest separated DTA peak occurs during the several early stages of cement hydration and is due mainly to tricalcium silicate hydration. Very good correlation shows that the greater is the waste content in the paste composition, the higher is its effect on the rates of reactions occurring during the induction (dormant) period of cement hydration. The presence of bentonite used as a solidification additive in the stabilization process has a similar but less dramatic effect on the dormant period.

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Abstract  

The synthesis and characterization of lanthanide(III) citrates with stoichiometries 1:1 and 2:3; [LnL·xH2O] and [Ln2(LH)3·2H2O], Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu are reported. L stands for (C6O7H5)3− and LH for (C6O7H6)2−. Infrared absorption spectra of both series evidence coordination of carboxylate groups through symmetric bridges or chelation. X-ray powder patterns show the amorphous character of [LnL·xH2O]. The compounds [Ln2LH3·2H2O] are crystalline and isomorphous. Emission spectra of Eu compounds suggest C 2v symmetry for the coordination polyhedron of [LnL·xH2O] and C 4v for [Ln2(LH)3·2H2O]. Thermal analyses (TG-DTG-DTA) were carried out for both series. The thermal analysis patterns of the two series are quite different and both fit in a 4-step model of thermal decomposition, with lanthanide oxides as final products.

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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine phase transitions of freeze-dried camu-camu pulp in a wide range of moisture content. Samples were equilibrated at 25°C over saturated salt solutions in order to obtain water activities (a w) between 0.11–0.90. Samples with a w>0.90 were obtained by direct water addition. At the low and intermediate moisture content range, Gordon–Taylor model was able to predict the plasticizing effect of water. In samples, with a w>0.90, the glass transition curve exhibited a discontinuity and T g was practically constant (–58.8°C), representing the glass transition temperature of the maximally concentrated phase(T g ).

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Abstract  

The knowledge of radioactive and stable elements partitioning to natural sediment systems is essential for modelling their environmental fate. A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40K) and antropogenic (Pu, 241Am, 137Cs) radionuclides in a 10 cm deep sediment sample collected in the Tyrrhenian sea (Gaeta Gulf, Italy) in front of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant. 137Cs and 40K were measured by gamma-spectrometry. Extraction chromatography with Microthene-TOPO (U, Th), Microthene-TNOA (Pu) and Microthene-HDEHP (Am) was used for the chemical separation of the alpha-emitters: after electrodeposition alpha-spectrometry was carried out. Some stable elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Ba, Ti, Sr, Cu, Ni) were also determined in the different fractions to get more information about the chemical association of the radionuclides.

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) have been used by the authors as very effective tools to study hydration steps of cements used for solidification/stabilization of tanning wastes. The present paper presents a method which was applied to separate the peaks shown by DTG curves of type II Portland cement pastes, analyzed at different times during the first 4 weeks of setting. Through a specific software a more detailed study of the evolution of the cement hydration may be done, which allows the measurement of the amount of hydrated water present in tobermorite gel as well as in ettringite, which are the main phases formed from the original components of the cement. The number of moles of water present in the ettringite phase calculated by the method is in very good agreement with the values found in the literature, validating the method to calculate the same parameter in tobermorite gel. In the latter case the water content decreases significantly during the first day of hydration, then remains at a constant value over the rest of the analyzed period.

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Abstract  

Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies.

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Abstract  

Norfloxacin (NFX) is a synthetic antibacterial drug. The development of extended release tablets improves the patients’ comfort and compliance, resulting in lower discontinuation of the therapy; with consequently decrease in bacterial resistance. In the present work, the thermal behavior of NFX was investigated using TG and DSC techniques. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were employed to determine kinetic data of decomposition process. Compatibility studies between NFX and pharmaceutical excipients, including three hydrophilic polymers were carried out in order to develop a new formulation of NFX to obtain extended release tablets with an approved quality.

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