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Abstract  

Vinylidene chloride polymers are prominent in the barrier plastics packaging industry. They display good barrier to the transport of oxygen (to prevent spoilage of food items) and flavor and aroma constituents (to prevent 'scalping' on the supermarket shelf). However, these polymers undergo thermal dehydrochlorination during processing. This can lead to a variety of problems including the evolution of hydrogen chloride which must be scavenged to prevent its interaction with the metallic walls of process equipment. Such interaction leads to the formation of metal halides which act as Lewis acids to facilitate the degradation. A potentially effective means to capture hydrogen chloride generated might be to incorporate into the polymer a mild organic base. Accordingly, copolymers of vinylidene chloride and 4-vinylpyridine have been prepared and subjected to thermal aging. Results suggest that the pyridine moiety is sufficiently basic to actively promote dehydrochlorination in the vinylidene chloride segments of the polymer.

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Abstract  

A module is extending relative to a module class in two different ways. The definition and general properties of such extending modules have been given in [3] and also in the case of specific classes of modules has been characterized. In this paper, we define weak extending modules in two different ways with respect to general classes of modules. We give the relations between extending and weak extending modules and characterize them.

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Abstract  

DSC can be used to quickly determine if a product labeled as butter is actually a recombined butter made without milk. Recombined butter is manufactured from anhydrous milk fat, skim milk powder, water, salt, and lecithin. Melting profiles of tempered samples of natural butter and recombined butter were alike, but DSC curves from 5 to 25°C of untempered refrigerated samples revealed that the enthalpy of the melting transition around 17–20°C was much higher for natural butter than for recombined butter. The procedure for differentiating the two products can be completed in less than 20 min.

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Abstract  

Vinylidene chloride polymers containing comonomer units capable of consuming evolved hydrogen chloride to expose good radical-scavenging sites might be expected to display greater thermal stability than similar polymers containing simple alkyl acrylates as comonomer. Incorporation of a comonomer containing the phenyl t-butyl carbonate moiety into a vinylidene chloride polymer has the potential to afford a polymer with pendant groups which might interact with hydrogen chloride to expose phenolic groups. Copolymers of vinylidene chloride with [4-(t-butoxycarbonyloxy)phenyl]methyl acrylate have been prepared, characterized, and subjected to thermal degradation. The degradation has been characterized by thermal and spectroscopic techniques. The degradation of vinylidene chloride/[4-(t-butoxycarbonyloxy)phenyl]methyl acrylate copolymers is much more facile than the same process for similar copolymers containing either [4-(isobutoxycarbonyloxy)phenyl]methyl acrylate or methyl acrylate, a simple alkyl acrylate, as comonomer. During copolymer degradation, [4-(t-butoxycarbonyloxy) phenylmethyl acrylate units are apparently converted to acrylic acid units by extensive fragmentation of the sidechain. Thus, the phenyl t-butyl carbonate moiety does function as a labile acid-sensitive pendant group but its decomposition in this instance leads to the generation of a phenoxybenzyl carboxylate capable of further fragmentation.

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Over recent years a number of attempts have been made to assess the carbon mitigation potential of European agricultural land. Here we review the progress made by comparing pre- and post-Kyoto estimates of C mitigation potential, and review recent advances, such as the inclusion of trace gases in C mitigation calculations. We then briefly discuss ways in which our regional estimates of agricultural carbon mitigation potential might be improved. Finally, we set the findings for Europe in the context of the global terrestrial carbon cycle, and the historical global loss of carbon from soils due to agriculture.

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