Endothelin elicits long-lasting vasoconstriction in the coronary bed. This remarkable spastic response raises the question whether or not the metabolic adaptive mechanisms of the coronaries are activated under endothelin effect. The role of the compensatory mediators adenosine and inosine was investigated before and after intracoronary (ic.) administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1.0 nmol) using 1-min reactive hyperemia (RH) tests on in situ dog hearts (n=15) with or without blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium (K +ATP) channels by glibenclamide (GLIB, 1.0 mmol min –1, ic.). The release of adenosine and inosine via the coronary sinus was measured by HPLC during the first minute of RH. Endothelin-1 reduced baseline coronary blood flow (CBF) and RH response (hyperemic excess flow (EF) control vs. ET-1: 81.7±13.6 vs. 43.4±10.9 ml, P<0.01), while it increased the net nucleoside release (adenosine, control vs. ET-1: 58.9±20.4 vs. 113.7±39.4 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 242.1±81.8 vs. 786.9±190.8 nmol, P<0.05). GLIB treatment alone did not change baseline CBF but also reduced RH significantly and increased nucleoside release (EF control vs. GLIB: 72.1±11.7 vs. 31.9±5.5 ml, P<0.01; adenosine: 18.8±4.6 vs. 63.0±24.8 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 113.0±37.2 vs. 328.2±127.5 nmol, P<0.05). Endothelin-1 on GLIB-treated coronaries further diminished RH and increased nucleoside release (EF: 21.5±8.0 ml, P<0.05 vs. GLIB; adenosine: 75.3±28.1 nmol, NS; inosine: 801.9±196.6 nmol, P<0.05 vs. GLIB). The data show that ET-1 reduces metabolic adaptive capacity of the coronaries, and this phenomenon is due to decreased vascular responsiveness and not to the blockade of ischemic mediator release from the myocardium. The coronary effect of ET-1 may partially be dependent on K +ATP channels. _;
The vaccine-induced maternal immunity against classical swine fever (CSF) was investigated in this study. Eight sows were vaccinated with the Chinese strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The length of time between vaccination and farrowing was 167-217 days. Milk samples from the front, middle and back udder sections and blood samples were taken from the sows on days 3 and 14 after farrowing. Blood samples were obtained from the piglets at the age of 3, 6 and 10 weeks. The antibody level of the milk was examined by ELISA, and that of blood samples by the virus neutralization (VN) test as well. In all 3-week-old piglets and in 80% of the 6-week-old animals the neutralizing antibody level reached the titre of 1:40. In none of the 10-week-old piglets did the titre exceed the value of 1:20, but in about 25% of the piglets it reached 1:20; the half of these piglets came from two litters. In none of the piglets did the antibody level reach the negative threshold in the ELISA test during the study. No significant differences were found between the udder sections in milk antibody level by ELISA.
The effects of classical swine fever (CSF) virus infection on the porcine leukocyte subsets were investigated by flow cytometry in acute, chronic and convalescent forms of the disease. The virus antigen could be first detected in the monocytes on postinfection (p.i.) day 10 while in the lymphocytes on p.i. day 13. It could be established that the ratio of CD6+ cells decreased until p.i. day 6, but afterwards it started to increase and reached different values. The CD4+CD8+, the CD8+ and the CD6- cells were obviously higher virus positive than the CD4+ and the CD4-CD8-subsets, but essentially all subsets could be infected. The ratio of CD8+ cells increased during the disease, while the number of double positive cells decreased, and that of the CD4+ cells was variable. The viral antigen could be detected in a lower percentage of the CD4+CD8+, CD8+, CD6+ and CD6- cells of the pigs affected with the chronic form of the disease than in those with the acute form. During the experiments no viral antigen could be detected in the leukocytes of the pig that became convalescent, though the changes in its leukocyte subsets were very similar to those seen in pigs in which the viral antigen could be detected. The studies have revealed that essentially all leukocyte subsets can be infected with the CSF virus, but in very different amounts.
A number of human diseases and pathological conditions were found to be associated with increased oxidative stress. In the literature several techniques are available for the assessment of oxidative stress, but most of them are not applicable for a routine medical laboratory due to the complex methodology and/or financial reasons. We report here on a simple, inexpensive, kinetic assay for the determination of the oxidative stress biomarker, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in the human blood plasma.
This study involved 70 patients (47M/23F; mean age: 64.6 y; range: 16–85) admitted to our Department with a wide range of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases. Three critically ill patients were assigned for monitoring purposes. Plasma AOPP were simultaneously determined using an end-point assay as reference method and by a kinetic method developed in our laboratory. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was measured according to the Clauss method.
There was a highly significant correlation (r
<0.0001) between AOPP concentration (reference method) and AOPP reactivity (kinetic method). Both AOPP concentration and AOPP reactivity also significantly correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentration (r
<0.0001). The three representative cases presented appear to support the relevance of our novel method in the monitoring of critically ill patients.
This simple and inexpensive kinetic assay can be widely used in any routine laboratory interested in oxidative stress research. It is especially recommended for monitoring critically ill or other patients.
The biological properties of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain Oregon C24V were studied after intranasal and subcutaneous infection of pregnant sows. This virus strain is widely used in Hungary for immunising cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). Based upon the results of the clinical, gross pathological, histopathological and virological examinations it can be established that the given strain caused asymptomatic infection and serological conversion in sows that were in the second third of gestation. The virus caused clinically apparent disease in some of the piglets born at term, which indicates that it had crossed the placenta. More than half (57%) of the live-born piglets died within 60 days of birth. The sows and their progeny did not shed the virus. BVDV infection has great differential diagnostic importance in pigs, as classical swine fever (CSF) virus strains of reduced virulence cause similar clinical symptoms and gross and histopathological changes.
The effect of synthetic beta-carotene and synthetic nucleotide base on daily weight gain, feed consumption and certain haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of piglets were studied in a 3-week experiment. Beginning one week prior to weaning, the diet fed to one experimental group of piglets was supplemented with 10% Rovimix Beta-carotene at 875 mg/kg of diet. Synthetic uracil and adenine (98%, Sigma-Aldrich) were mixed into the diet of the other experimental group at doses of 500 mg/kg of diet for each substance. The control group received the basic diet without any supplementation. The changes observed over time in the haematological parameters and in certain biochemical variables could be regarded as physiological. By day 21 of the experiment, beta-carotene supplementation had significantly lowered the neutrophilic granulocyte percentage and elevated the lymphocyte percentage, while in the other two groups a change of opposite tendency occurred. At the end of the experimental period there was a decrease in plasma vitamin E concentration due to carotene supplementation (control: 6.1 ± 1.5, nucleotide: 6.3 ± 2.5, carotene: 2.3 ± 1.5 mg/L). Lymphocyte blastogenesis induced by phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A increased by 50 and 130%, respectively, in the nucleotide group and by 60 and 30%, respectively, in the carotene group, while it did not change in the control group. The supplements exerted no positive effect on the in vivo cellular immune response.