The paper has been presented at the ceremonial lecture held on 29 April 2016 for the nomination of the main lecture hall in the Science Building after the genius professor Zoltan Bachman belonged to the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pecs.
This paper introduces the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm of Breiman and Friedman (1985) in multiple regression problems in groundwater monitoring data analysis. This special inverse nonparametric approach can be applied easily for estimating the optimal transformations of different groundwater monitoring data from the Bükk Mountains to obtain maximum correlation between observed aquifer variables. The approach does not require a priori assumptions of a mathematical form, and the optimal transformations are derived solely based on the groundwater data set. The advantages and applicability of the proposed approach to solve different multiple regression problems in hydrogeology or in groundwater management are illustrated by means of case studies from a Hungarian karst aquifer. It is demonstrated that the ACE method has certain advantages in some fitting problems of groundwater science over the traditional multiple regression.In the past, different groundwater monitoring data (like groundwater level, groundwater temperature and conductance, etc.) had been used for groundwater management purposes in the Bükk Mountains. One of the difficulties in earlier approaches has been the need to make some kind of assumption of the expected mathematical forms among the investigated reservoir and petrophysical variables. By using nonparametric regression, the need to assume a specific form of model is avoided, and a clearer vision of the relationships between aquifer parameters can be revealed in the Bükk Mountains, where karst water is the main source of potable water supply. Complex monitoring data from the Bükk Mountains were analyzed using the ACE inverse method, and results were verified successfully against quantitative and qualitative field observations.
Authors:I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, P. Szűcs, and et al.
The possibilities latent in molecular marker-based QTL analyses are presented through the example of studying winter survival and heading date in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The whole range of QTL experiments consists of several important steps, through which answers are found to the following questions: (1) How many QTLs are involved and where do they map, (2) How does the environment influence the effect of a QTL region (environment × QTL interactions), (3) When and where are the genes determining the given trait expressed (QTL dynamics), (4) What interactions occur between these QTLs and pathways leading to specific phenotypes, and (5) How consistent is the effect of a QTL region in different genetic backgrounds and in a wider range of germplasms (comparative mapping and association studies)? This knowledge then makes it possible to continue these experiments in the direction of marker-assisted selection and/or gene isolation through marker saturation of the relevant chromosomal regions and map-based cloning. The latter can give an insight into the exact mechanism through which the gene determines the phenotype.
Authors:Zs Plank, P. Szűcs, T. Madarász, and B. Neducza
Pesticides, chlorinated organic compounds and hydrocarbons are among the most threatening soil and groundwater contaminants because of their mobility and persistence in the subsurface, their widespread use, and their health effects. Hazardous chemicals getting into underground medium can be especially dangerous because they may remain persistently hidden from human eyes for a long time and their harmful impact on health may appear much later than their emission time and spatially far from the source of contamination. Development and combination of reliable and accurate geophysical methods and hydrogeological transport models with the traditional chemical analytics are greatly needed to assess the risk posed by the contamination plumes of these compounds to the subsurface.The paper presents the successful cooperation of these three disciplines in detailed characterization of subsurface hydrocarbon contaminants in a test site of Hungary. Combining the chemical analysis with high resolution geophysical methods and hydrogeological transport modeling the 4 dimensional characteristics of the contamination can be produced. The interdisciplinary research produced new developments and results in all participating fields of sciences.
One basic precondition for the reliable cultivation of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Hungary is for the varieties to have good winter hardiness and frost resistance. Field overwintering experiments carried out in Martonvásár between 1995 and 2003 demonstrated that there was a significant difference every year between the overwintering of varieties with poor and good frost resistance, though only in two years was there a significant difference between that of varieties with medium and better frost resistance. Only a medium correlation was observed between the mean annual values of the air temperature in the winter months and the winter hardiness of the varieties, confirming that winter hardiness is influenced jointly by a number of environmental factors (e.g. cold, snow cover). In the experiments carried out on the winter hardiness dynamics of durum wheat, it was found that in milder winters even T. durum varieties which are sensitive to frost overwintered with little damage, while in the two coldest winters during the experimental period the hardiness of these varieties did not provide sufficient protection even in December, and all the plants were destroyed by January. The early spring frosts experienced in 1996 proved in these experiments that spring frosts may cause considerable damage even to durum wheat varieties with relatively good winter hardiness. Averaged over eight years, the results prove that T. durum genotypes are now available whose average state of hardening and winter hardiness are equal or better than those of winter T. aestivum varieties with moderate frost resistance.
Authors:G. Szűcs, P. Laczay, Judit Bajnógel, and Zsuzsa Móra
Studies were carried out to investigate the effects of monensin and tiamulin, and the simultaneous administration of both compounds on microsomal enzymes in rats. In Phase I of the experiments the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively), while in Phase II the two compounds were administered simultaneously (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). When monensin was administered by itself, it exerted no significant effect on microsomal liver enzymes. In a few cases, slight inhibition of certain enzyme activities was seen. Tiamulin provoked a dose-dependent hepatic enzyme induction. The combined administration of monensin and tiamulin at low doses (10 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) resulted in marked elevation of P450-related enzyme activities. The enzyme induction was more pronounced in females than in males. The results suggest that the simultaneous administration of tiamulin may influence the biotransformation of monensin, possibly increasing the amount of reactive metabolite(s) of the ionophore antibiotic.
Authors:Viktória Szűcs, Júlia Harangozó, and Raquel P. F. Guiné
Bevezetés: Az élelmi rostok az egészséges és kiegyensúlyozott
táplálkozás kulcselemei, amelyek rendszeres fogyasztása számos betegség
kockázatát csökkentheti. Célkitűzés: Jelen munka célja a magyar
fogyasztók élelmi rostokkal kapcsolatos ismeretének, vásárlási döntésben
betöltött szerepének feltárása, valamint a jelenleg használt és a fogyasztást
előremozdító lehetséges információforrások megismerése volt.
Módszer: A kérdőíves megkérdezést 303 magyar felnőtt
fogyasztó segítségével végezték. Eredmények: Az élelmi rostok
forrásait tekintve a résztvevők bizonytalanok voltak, míg a rostfogyasztás
egészségügyi hatásainak ismerete viszonylag alapos volt. Az internet jelentős
információs forrásként jelent meg a témában, azonban az eredmények rámutatnak az
iskolai oktatás fontosságára is. Az élelmi rostban gazdag élelmiszereket
gyakrabban fogyasztók, a nők, valamint a 45 éven felüli résztvevők az élelmi
rostokkal kapcsolatosan tudatos attitűdöt mutattak.
Következtetések: A hazai fogyasztók kiegyensúlyozott
táplálkozásának érdekében az élelmi rostokkal kapcsolatos hiteles és gyakorlati
elemeket tartalmazó iránymutatás és oktatás elengedhetetlen, amelynek
eredményeképpen a latens ismeret várhatóan a fogyasztók vásárlási döntéseiben
tudatosan is meg fog jelenni. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(8),
Authors:J. Bányai, P. Szűcs, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, Cs. Kuti, L. Láng, and Z. Bedő
A total of 96 winter wheat (
L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.