Diploid Anthoxanthum odoratum and tetraploid A. aristatum were compared with respect to stomatal guard cell lengths, and stomatal density at adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the lamina. Further, the genome size of both species was determined by flow cytometry, and the number as well as the chromosomal distribution of 5S and 45S rDNAs were examined using FISH with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes. The average length of stomatal guard cells in A. odoratum was shown to be greater than that for A. aristatum, but the ranges overlapped. Moreover, reduction in stomatal frequency was found at higher ploidy levels.The genome size was 6.863 pg/2C DNA for A. aristatum and 13.252 pg/2C DNA for A. odoratum. A. aristatum has four sites of 5S rDNA in its root-tip meristematic cells, whereas A. odoratum has six. Both species have six sites of 45S rDNA. Chromosomal localization of the rDNA varied, which suggests that chromosome rearrangements took place during Anthoxanthum genome evolution.