The first scientific tools of earthquake investigations were provided by isoseismic maps. The present paper describes the formation and development of cartographic representation of macroseismic information. Study of old isoseismal maps is of importance in assessing the earthquake hazard. Unfortunately there are only few well documented events prior the epoch of instrumental seismology for which the earthquake parameters (i.e. magnitude, focal depth) and tectonic position can be estimated. In the same time important steps forward in development of seismology (e.g. use of time observations, seismic speed determinations, use of geological information, birth of engineering seismology) are connected with attempts of representation of macroseismic data on maps.
Probably the most significant link between research into Earth tides and seismology is connected with the first attempts to measure the Earth’s effective elasticity using these tides. In 1863 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) published his famous paper “On the rigidity of the Earth”, which describes how these observation could determine the mean rigidity of the Earth. This current paper sets out to describe some important developments in this common area of study between seismology and earth tide research until the middle of the twentieth century.
The effects of UV-C radiation on the germination rate and fungal contamination of tall fescue seeds were investigated. Samples from the same seed lot were irradiated in two different ways in two consecutive years. The seeds were irradiated with a Hg vapour lamp using different doses. In the first trial one side of the seeds was irradiated, while in the second trial a mirror was used to irradiate the whole seed surface. The results showed that various doses of UV-C irradiation had an effect on the germination rate, but there were no significant differences in germination percentage between the treatments. Differences in fungal contamination rates were observed when the seeds were irradiated on all sides. The presence of 21 fungal genera was identified on the seeds, the saprotrophic fungi
The spatio-temporal patterns of the seismicity are shown. The earthquake occurrence is connected to the strain rate on the basis of Kostrov (1974) equation. It is shown that in the Pannonian Basin the seismic rates are 10-7-10-6. This values were derived from the local earthquake catalogues of the area of Komárom, Dunaharaszti (near Budapest) and Kecskemét. It is shown that the earthquake occurrence in Hungary has a well expressed diurnal periodicity. Similar phenomenon was detected in the case of earthquakes of all Europe and in Turkey in case of weak (ML = 3.0) seismic events.
Authors:K. Gribovszki, F. Schulek-Tóth, and P. Varga
Deterministic seismic hazard computations were performed along four different profiles across the downtown of Budapest. Synthetic seismograms were computed by the so called “hybrid technique”. By applying the hybrid technique it is possible to take into account the focal source, the path and the site effect together. Four independent computations have been performed using the same seismic source but different profiles. The parameters of the seismic source were adopted from the parameters of the well-known 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake. The focal mechanism and the homogeneous and heterogeneous parts of the profiles are known from geophysical and geological data of the investigated area.As the results of the computations PGA (peak ground acceleration) grid maps of the downtown of Budapest for the three different components came into existence. Furthermore spectral acceleration (response spectra, SA) and RSR charts of the synthetic seismograms for the four different profiles were created. The PGA grid maps show that the maximal PGA values are situated at the eastern (Pest) part of the downtown, and their values are 50–200 cm/s
.For the downtown of Budapest a special seismic risk map have been prepared. This special seismic risk map were created on the basis of the difference between the maximal amplitude frequencies of SA of synthetic seismograms and the building’s eigenfrequencies at every 0.1 km
of the downtown. In order to determine the building’s eigenfrequencies microseismic noise measurement were performed at 6 different buildings in the downtown. The special seismic risk map shows that the buildings situated at the hilly western section of the downtown have higher seismic risk than the ones at the flat eastern part.
The La Fontaine Literature Society was founded in 1920 in Budapest. Its task was to promote the world literature in Hungary and to make Hungarian literature better known abroad.
One of the founders was Béla Vikár, who also translated the Fables of Jean La Fontaine into Hungarian. In my paper I investigate his correspondence between 1920 and 30 and the deed of foundation of the La Fontaine Society. My aim is to describe the place and the role of Finnish and Estonian literatures in the Society's work.