The calorimetric data of blended shrinkage-compensating binders with different compositions were measured at 25C at different
water-binder ratios using an isothermal calorimeter. The hydration characteristics of shrinkage-compensating binders were
evaluated and their influence on the expansive properties of blended shrinkage-compensating binders was determined. Composition
and w/b ratio significantly affect the hydration rate and degree of shrinkage-compensating binders, as well as their expansive
and mechanical properties. The total heat of hydration of binders decreases with w/c ratios. Its final hydration degree also
decreases with w/c ratio. The ternary binders composed with Portland cement, mineral admixture and expansive agent show low
hydration heat and rate of heat evolution, but their total heat of hydration increases continuously and surpasses that of
binary binder in later period at low w/b ratio.
The Flory's gelation theory, non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory and Avrami equation have been used to predict
the gel time tg and the cure behavior of epoxy resin/organo-montmorillonite/diethylenetriamine intercalated nanocomposites at various temperatures
and organo-montmorillonite loadings. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained
by dynamic torsional vibration method, and the results show that the addition of organo-montmorillonite reduces the gelation
time tgand increases the rate of curing reaction, the value of k, and half-time of cure after gelation point t1/2 decreases with the increasing of cure temperature, and the value of n is ~2 at the lower temperatures (<60C) and decreases to ~1.5 as the temperature increases, and the addition of organo-montmorillonite
decreases the apparent activation energy of the cure reaction before gelation point, but has no apparent effect on the apparent
activation energy of the cure reaction after gelation point. There is no special curing process required for the formation
of epoxy resin/organo-montmorillonite/diethylenetriamine intercalated nanocomposite.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/organic-montmorillonite composites were prepared by melt intercalation. Their structures and properties
were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical testing. The results
showed that PVC chains could be intercalated into the gallery of organically modified montmorillonite to form exfoliated PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites, and the glass transition temperatures of PVC/organic-montmorillonite composites were lower than that of neat
PVC. However, the tensile strength, and both the Izod type and Charpy notched impact strengths of PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites were fitted with the linear expressions: t=535.07-6.39Tg, sI=378.76-4.59Tg and sC=276.29-3.59Tg, respectively.
It has been generally accepted when estimating sedimentation rates using the 137Cs dating method that the position of the 137Cs maximum in a sediment profile represents the year 1963. In this paper we validated this approach by developing a model
in which the annual 137Cs global fallout flux for the Yangtze River estuary was established on the basis of the Tokyo flux corrected for precipitation
rates observed in Shanghai. As the 137Cs maxima in the sediment deposition profiles depend on the sedimentation rates, the sub-sampling intervals were calculated
accordingly. Higher measured than the calculated values were found in some cores, what may be due to fluctuating sedimentation
rates and an additional deposition of 137Cs from land-based sources. The study provides useful information on the reliability of the measured 137Cs maxima in sediment profiles frequently used for dating of sediments in marine (coastal regions, open seas) as well as in
terrestrial (lakes) environments.
A simple and rapid method, using online ultraperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-eλ-ESI-MS/MS), was developed for the in-depth analysis of 50 batches Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The analysis was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution system. Baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min. At the same time, on the basis of the 50 batches of samples collected from representative cultivated regions, a novel chromatographic fingerprint was devised by UPLC-PDA, in which 27 common peaks were detected and identified by the developed UPLC-MS/MS method step by step according to fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS data, standards, and relevant literature. Many active components gave prominent [M - H]− ions in the ESI mass spectra. These components include anthraquinones, sennosides, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, and catechins. Furthermore, based on the information of these Radix et Rhizoma Rhei components, and further combined with discriminant analysis, a novel discriminant analysis equation (DAE) was established for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei for the first time.
To investigate the nutritional characteristics of purple wheat, 41 kinds of nutrients were measured in seven purple wheat lines using one white wheat variety as control sample. Correlation analysis of nutrient contents was performed. Results show that the amounts of 40 kinds of nutrients in the purple wheat lines are higher than those of the control. For example, the amounts of sodium (Na) and manganese (Mn) in purple wheat are higher than the standards by 311.77–2017.65% and 548.15–733.33%, respectively; the contents of β + γ-vitamin E is higher than the standards by 300%; and zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are all higher than the control by 100%. Therefore, the purple wheat has obvious advantages in terms of the nutrient contents. Correlation analysis studies show that protein has significant positive correlations with Glu, Mo, Pro, Fe, Tyr and Ile. Anthocyanin has significant positive correlations with Mo and Glu, and significant negative correlations with free Trp and Ca. Carotenoid has significant positive correlations with His, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and I, and significant negative correlations with Ca. This paper is a first report on comprehensive nutrients of several purple wheat lines. Our results suggest that purple wheat is rich in nutrients and there are many significant correlations among different nutrients. The valuable information is very useful in biofortification breeding and functional food development.
Authors:F.-Y. Du, X.-H. Xiao, P.-P. Xu, and G.-K. Li
An efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted (IL-MAE) method has been developed for extraction of dehydrocavidine from Corydalis saxicola Bunting (C. saxicola) for subsequent rapid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The yield of dehydrocavidine reached 9.446 mg g−1 within 10 min under the optimum IL-MAE conditions (1.5 mol L−1 [hmim]Br as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio 20:1 (mL:g), and extraction temperature 70°C). Compared with conventional procedures, the proposed IL-MAE method has many advantages, for example high extraction yield, short extraction time, low solvent consumption, no use of volatile organic solvents, and no further sample clean-up before HPLC analysis. The method was validated for limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, recovery, and reproducibility. The calibration range was 5.0–200 mg L−1 and the correlation coefficient, r, was 0.9996. The LOD and LOQ were 0.035 and 0.12 mg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day assays were below 2.6% and 6.5%, respectively. Recovery was between 93.8% and 109.3% with RSD values below 5.0%. The method can be used for rapid and effective extraction and analysis of active components from medicinal plants.
Authors:F. Xu, L. Sun, Z. Tan, X. Lan, P. Yu, and T. Zhang
The heat capacities of berberine sulphate [(C20H18NO4)2SO43H2O] were measured from 80 to 390 K by means of an automated adiabatic calorimeter. Smoothed heat capacities, HT-H298.15 and ST-S298.15 were calculated. The loss of crystalline water started at about 339.30.2 K, and its peak temperature was 365.80.6 K. The
peak temperature of decomposition for berberine sulphate was at about 391.40.4 K by DSC curve. TG-DTG analysis of this material
was carried out in temperature range from 310 to 970 K. TG and DSC curves show that there is no melting in the whole heating