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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: S. P. Saikia, S. P. Saikia, V. Jain, V. Jain, G. C. Srivastava, and G. C. Srivastava

Research over the last few years has shown that inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azorhizobium presents an alternative for (or supplement to) chemical fertilization, mainly due to the capability of the bacteria to produce plant growth- promoting hormones. The Azorhizobium caulinodans strain ORS 571 in combination with 2,4-D was able to colonize the root interior of an Indian maize cultivar. After transplanting to pots, it was noticed that nodulated and Azorhizobium -treated plants showed higher chlorophyll content in the leaf and enhanced nitrate reductase activity, leading to higher yield as compared to the control plants (non-nodulated). A plant growth-promoting effect was clearly visible in all inoculated plants examined. nodulated plants treated with Azorhizobium had higher physiological activities as compared to plants treated only with Azorhizobium . Azorhizobium therefore creates potentially better symbiosis in the form of para -nodules and promotes a higher level of nitrogen fixation, leading to better growth and plant development, with reduced requirements for chemical fertilizers.

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Thermal and infrared spectral studies of the urea-orthoboric acid complex are reported. The complex is formed through the elimination of 0.5 H2O molecule. Infrared spectral data show the presence of hydrogen-bonding and the force constant calculated for the N ... HO bond is found to be 4−5×10−5 dyne cm−1, which is for the order of a single bond and indicates strong hydrogen-bonding in the complex. A tentative structure for the complex is proposed.

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The thermal decomposition behaviour of copper oxalate hemihydrate and its complexes with different amines has been studied by TG and DTA methods in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The complexes CuC2O4 · 0.5 H2O, CuC2O4(NH3)2 and CuC2O4(py) produced Cu2O as final residue after decomposition, whereas, another group of complexes, CuC2O4(EtNH2)2, CuC2O4(MeNH2)2, CuC2O4(en)2 and CuC2O4(An)2, gave a final residue of CuO. All the complexes decomposed without forming any isolable stable intermediate; an exception was CuC2O4(en)2, which formed a binuclear intermediate complex, [CuC2O4en]2.

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A two-year field experiment was conducted to study the effect of three zinc levels 0, 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 and 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 + foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 solution on plant height, leaf area, shoot biomass, photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content in different wheat genotypes. Increasing zinc levels was found to be beneficial in improving growth and physiological aspects of genotypes. Soil application + foliar spray proved to be the best application in improving all the parameters. Zinc application brought about a maximum increment limit of 41.8% in plant height, 101.8% in leaf area, 86% in shoot biomass and 51.1% in photosynthetic rate irrespective of stages and year of study. A variation was found to occur among genotypes in showing responses towards zinc application and PBW 550 was found to be more responsive.

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