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  • Author or Editor: Paola Loreti x
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Abstract  

The β-expansions, i.e., greedy expansions with respect to non-integer bases q>1, were introduced by Réenyi and then investigated by many authors. Some years ago, Erdős, Horváth and Joó found the surprising fact that there exist infinitely many numbers 1<q<2 for which the β-expansion of 1 is the unique possible expansion with coefficients 0 or 1. Subsequently, the unique expansions were characterized in [9] and this characterization led to the determination (in [17]) of the smallest number q having this curious property. It is intimately related to the classical Thue-Morse sequence. Allouche and Cosnard recently proved that this q is transcendental. The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous results for expansions in arbitrary non-integer bases q>1. We also determine the smallest q having the corresponding uniqueness property in each case, and we prove that all of them are transcendental. We will also obtain some probably new properties of the Thue-Morse sequence. In the last section we answer a question concerning the existence of universal expansions, a notion introduced in [12].

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Abstract  

Completing a series of works begun by Wiener [34], Paley and Wiener [28] and Ingham [9], a far-reaching generalization of Parseval"s identity was obtained by Beurling [4] for nonharmonic Fourier series whose exponents satisfy a uniform gap condition. Later this gap condition was weakened by Ullrich [33], Castro and Zuazua [5], Jaffard, Tucsnak and Zuazua [11] and then in [2] in some particular cases. In this paper we prove a general theorem which contains all previous results. Furthermore, applying a different method, we prove a variant of this theorem for nonharmonic Fourier series with vector coefficients. This result, partly motivated by control-theoretical applications, extends several earlier results obtained in [15] and [2]. Finally, applying these results we obtain an optimal simultaneous observability theorem concerning a system of vibrating strings.

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