Authors:Khairollah Asadollahi, Morovat Taherikalani, Abbas Maleki, Eshrat Alizadeh, Hasan Valadbaigi, Setareh Soroush, Hossain Maleki, Parisa Asadollahi, and Mohammad Emaneini
The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AME) and their association with class 1 integrons in Iranian Acinetobacter baumannii strains.A total of 100 multidrug resistant A. baumannii, isolated from eight distinct hospitals in Tehran, were enrolled in this study. Susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobial agents including gentamicin and amikacin was determined by E-test. Aminoglycoside resistant isolates were then tested by PCR for AME genes, including aphA6, aacC1, aacC2, aacA4, aadB, aadA1, classes 1 integron, 5′-CS-3′ and typed by RAPD PCR.The rate of resistance to imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and amikacin were 39%, 39%, 38% and 32%, respectively. Intermediate resistance phenotype to gentamicin and amikacin was observed in 2% and 5% of all the isolates, respectively. After aph6 with 90% (n = 36/40), aadA1, aacC1 and aadB with 82.5% (n = 33/40), 65% (n = 26/40) and 20% (n = 8/40) were the most prevalent AME genes among aminoglycosides resistant A. baumannii isolates. A combination of two to four different resistance genes was observed in 39 of 40 strains (97.5%), with a total of 7 different combinations. PCR of integrase genes revealed that AME gene was associated with 67% of class 1 integrons. RAPD analysis showed three predominant genotypes A (n = 20), B (n = 10) and 10 unrelated genotypes.The occurrence of identical resistance genes, gene combinations and class 1 integrons associated with these genes in clonally distinct strains indicates that horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in the dissemination of aminoglycoside resistance in A. baumannii.
Authors:Marzieh Aligholi, Mohammad Emaneini, Morovat Taherikalani, Shadi Shahsavan, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Parisa Asadollahi, Babak Khoramian, and Mohammad Eslampour
The synergy between gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin and linezolid was studied by time-kill method. Two clinical vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and two vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) isolates were used. Different concentrations of antibiotics were combined. Two VSE strains and the control strain exhibited synergism with the combination of gentamicin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin and linezolid. Two VRE strains exhibited synergism with the combination of gentamicin and ampicillin. Synergy between gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was not observed against these isolates. The VRE isolates were positive for vanA, aac (6′)-Ie aph (2“) and aph (3′)-IIIa genes and their vancomycin, teicoplanin and gentamicin MICs were 512 μg/ml, 512 μg/ml and >4000 μg/ml, respectively. In order to treat serious enterococcal infections, further clinical evaluation is needed to examine the in vitro combined effects of gentamicin and vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid.
Authors:Elaheh Gholami-Parizad, Morovat Taherikalani, Noor-Amir Mozaffar-Sabet, Mahdi Asmar, Skandar Gholami-Parizad, Afra Khosravi, Mohammad Emaneini, and Parisa Asadollahi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission via blood and other body fluids from infected individuals to healthy people has been largely demonstrated. However, in the current literature, there is little information available on the potential role of cerumen in HBV transmission.Cerumen and blood were collected from 70 patients infected with HBV and 70 volunteer healthy people were selected as the control group, and the samples were evaluated by ELISA and Real-time PCR.All the patients proved positive for HBsAg and anti HBc total. Sixty-one of the 70 cerumen samples of cases (82.1%) and 5 (7%) of controls were positive for HBV DNA with ranges from 1.53 × 102 to 2.9 × 108 and 1.3 × 102–2.6 × 105/ml, respectively. In three patients, the level of HBV DNA in cerumen was higher than that in the serums. The patients who were positive for HBeAg showed a higher rate of HBVDNA in the serum and cerumen.The results of this study showed the level of HBV DNA as a probably indicator of high risk transmission factor, which was present in the cerumen of chronic hepatitis B patients in west of Iran.