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  • Author or Editor: Paulo Guimarães x
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Abstract  

This paper analyzes the early research performance of PhD graduates in labor economics, addressing the following questions: Are there major productivity differences between graduates from American and European institutions? If so, how relevant is the quality of the training received (i.e. ranking of institution and supervisor) and the research environment in the subsequent job placement institution? The population under study consists of labor economics PhD graduates who received their degree in the years 2000–2005 in Europe or the USA. Research productivity is evaluated alternatively as the number of publications or the quality-adjusted number of publications of an individual. When restricting the analysis to the number of publications, results suggest a higher productivity by graduates from European universities than from USA universities, but this difference vanishes when accounting for the quality of the publication. The results also indicate that graduates placed at American institutions, in particular top ones, are likely to publish more quality-adjusted articles than their European counterparts. This may be because, when hired, they already have several good acceptances or because of more focused research efforts and clearer career incentives.

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Abstract  

The Guarapiranga Reservoir is a very important aquatic system due to the fact that it is one of the main water reservoirs for South America’s largest city, São Paulo, Brazil. Guarapiranga basin is located within the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo and the reservoir itself is located in the Northern part of the basin occupying approximately 26 km2. This reservoir is characterized by environmental impacts from urban invasion, industrial and sewage wastes, all of which seriously affect its water quality and, consequently, the sediment quality. Two collection campaigns were undertaken: April 2009 and June 2010. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earths (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb). The organic matter and granulometric distribution were also evaluated and multivariate analysis was applied to the results. The study of elemental ratios indicated that the amount of elements present in the Guarapiranga Reservoir is mainly of detrital origin.

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