The pan-genomic microarray technique is used for environmental and/or clinical studies. Although microarray is an accurate and sharp diagnostic tool, the expertized bioinformaticians were able to minimize the outcome biases and maximize the flexibility and accuracy of the technique. The knowledge of bioinformatics plays a key role in association with probe designing and the utilization of correct probe sets and platforms. This technique is divided into two parts as dry lab (in silico studies) and wet lab (in vitro studies). Each part covers the other and are known as complementary divisions. In the case of microarray probe designing, a wide range of software, tools, and databases are necessary. Obviously, the application of right databases, software, and tools decreases the probable biases in the outcomes. Due to the importance of suitable probe designing, this article has focused its look onto a variety of online/offline databases, software, and tools.
Among a wide range of cytokines, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family has its unique structural, functional, and immunological characteristics that have made this family as important immunological playmakers. Because of the importance of IL-12 heterodimeric cytokines in microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers, the authors of this literature discuss about the general characteristics of IL-12 family members, the interactions between IL-12 cytokines and pathogenic microorganisms, the interleukins receptors and their strategies for selecting different signalling pathways. IL-12 and IL-23 are similar in p40 subunits and both are involved in proinflammatory responses while, IL-27 and IL-35 contribute to anti-inflammatory activities; however, IL-27 is also involved in pro-inflammatory responses. There are some similarities and dissimilarities among IL-12 family members which make them a unique bridge between innate and adaptive immune systems. The bioactivities of IL-12 family indicate a brilliant promise for their applications in different fields of medicine. The members of IL-12 family are candidate for several therapeutics including gene therapy, cancer therapy, tumour therapy, and vaccination. To have an accurate diagnostic technique and definite treatment regarding to infectious diseases, the playmakers of IL-12 family as effective criteria together with microarray technology are the best choices for current and future applications.
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative motile bacterium causative agent of acute and chronic digestive and extra-digestive human infections. According to different reports worldwide, H. pylori symptomatic and asymptomatic infections are a global problem. The statistical investigations show a percentage of 50 for people who are involved in H. pylori acute/chronic digestive and/or extra-digestive infections around the world. This review focuses on digestive and extra-digestive diseases caused by H. pylori, the related virulence factors, diagnostic techniques including non-invasive and invasive diagnostics and treatment. There is an abundance of diagnostics for detection and identification of H. pylori. The availability, cost, and the condition of test performance may differ from place to place. To increase the level of reliability in association with diagnostic tools for detecting H. pylori, several techniques must be applied at once as multi-diagnostic technique. Furthermore, there are several pharmacotherapies which can be used for complete eradication of H. pylori infection.
Shigellosis is a considerable infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. In this survey the prevalence of four important virulence genes including ial, ipaH, set1A, and set1B were investigated among Shigella strains and the related gene profiles identified in the present investigation, stool specimens were collected from children who were referred to two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The samples were collected during 3 years (2008–2010) from children who were suspected to shigellosis. Shigella spp. were identified throughout microbiological and serological tests and then subjected to PCR for virulotyping. Shigella sonnei was ranking first (65.5%) followed by Shigella flexneri (25.9%), Shigella boydii (6.9%), and Shigella dysenteriae (1.7%). The ial gene was the most frequent virulence gene among isolated bacterial strains and was followed by ipaH, set1B, and set1A. S. flexneri possessed all of the studied virulence genes (ial 65.51%, ipaH 58.62%, set1A 12.07%, and set1B 22.41%). Moreover, the pattern of virulence gene profiles including ial, ial–ipaH, ial–ipaH–set1B, and ial–ipaH–set1B–set1A was identified for isolated Shigella spp. strains. The pattern of virulence genes is changed in isolated strains of Shigella in this study. So, the ial gene is placed first and the ipaH in second.
To have a successful publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a collection of factors and items is needed. Some of them directly and the others indirectly have important roles in scholarly publication. However, a well-designed scientific investigation together with a powerful academic English language may guarantee the publication of a manuscript. In other words, a standard and professional methodology which is expressed by an influent academic English language constitutes the soul of the manuscript's body. Obviously, the accuracy and fluency of the English language of the manuscript is the author(s)' responsibility and neither the reviewers' nor the editor's and the journal's. As publication of a research paper is the complementary section of a scientific study, it is recognized as an academic criterion for academicians. Thus, this review focuses on the all of items which are necessary and vital for a successful scholarly publication.
The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RSCB PDB) provides a wide range of digital data regarding biology and biomedicine. This huge internet resource involves a wide range of important biological data, obtained from experiments around the globe by different scientists. The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) represents a brilliant collection of 3D structure data associated with important and vital biomolecules including nucleic acids (RNAs and DNAs) and proteins. Moreover, this database accumulates knowledge regarding function and evolution of biomacromolecules which supports different disciplines such as biotechnology. 3D structure, functional characteristics and phylogenetic properties of biomacromolecules give a deep understanding of the biomolecules’ characteristics. An important advantage of the wwPDB database is the data updating time, which is done every week. This updating process helps users to have the newest data and information for their projects. The data and information in wwPDB can be a great support to have an accurate imagination and illustrations of the biomacromolecules in biotechnology. As demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, rapidly reliable and accessible biological data for microbiology, immunology, vaccinology, and drug development are critical to address many healthcare-related challenges that are facing humanity. The aim of this paper is to introduce the readers to wwPDB, and to highlight the importance of this database in biotechnology, with the expectation that the number of scientists interested in the utilization of Protein Data Bank’s resources will increase substantially in the coming years.