Triticum dicoccoides, wild emmer wheat, is the direct progenitor of cultivated wheats, has the same genome formula as durum wheat, and has contributed two genomes to bread wheat. It harbors many useful genes, more than can be used for wheat improvement. These genes are associated with many agronomic traits, abiotic stress tolerances, biotic stress resistances, grain protein content and micronutrient mineral concentrations. In this review, we summarized the achievements regarding gene discovery, i.e. gene identification, mapping and cloning in wild emmer wheat. These genes, controlling important agronomic traits, disease resistance, drought tolerance, high protein content and micronutrient mineral content, should be very useful for improvement of wheat production and food nutrition. However, the majority of genetic resources in wild emmer remain untapped, demonstrating the need for further exploration and utilization for wheat breeding programs. The large number of molecular markers, genomics tools and efficient cloning techniques available for wheat will greatly accelerate the application of wild emmer germplasm to wheat improvement and ensure sustainability of global wheat production.
Authors:Wu Yanbo, Fu Jie, Zeng Sisi, Sun Peng, and Yan Yingchun
Thermal pyrolysis of pharmaceutical wastewater sludge, brown coal, and sludge-coal blends were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 20 °C min−1 in the temperature range from 25 to 850 °C. Different possible kinetic models of thermal decomposition have been considered. The best models of mechanism function for brown coal, pharmaceutical wastewater sludge, and coal–sludge blends are a first-order reaction, a N-dimensional nucleation, and growth reactions with N = 2 and 4, respectively. The Arrhenius kinetic parameters for brown coal, pharmaceutical wastewater sludge, and coal–sludge blends are proposed.
Authors:Peng Yuan, Zhongyi Liu, Tianjun Hu, Haijie Sun, and Shouchang Liu
A Cu–Zn–Al catalyst was prepared by the co-precipitation method and was applied for the hydrogenation of dimethyl adipate.
Selectivity to 1,6-hexanediol exceeding 99% was obtained at 99% conversion of dimethyl adipate. The catalyst was highly efficient
and stable. The influences of the calcination temperature of the catalyst were studied.
Authors:S. Elfatih, Y. Peng, J. Ma, J. Peng, D. Sun, and W. Ma
A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.
Authors:Danling Sun, Xitian Peng, Maomin Peng, Xian Zhang, Hong Xia, Zhimin Xu, and Xizhou Hu
This study focused on developing an effective and environmentally friendly method to measure ligustrazine in rat serum by using polymer monolith micro-extraction (PMME) technique. A poly (methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) material was used to extract ligustrazine through hydrophobic and ion-exchange interaction. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. After optimization of several PMME conditions, the developed method exhibited excellent extraction performance to the ligustrazine. Good linearity was acquired ranging from 10 to 2,000 ng mL−1, and the limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.14 ng mL−1. The recoveries measured by spiking three different concentrations in rat serum ranged from 82.6 to 95.3%, and excellent precision was found with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.3% for intra-day and 9.7% for inter-day, respectively. At last, the applicability of the method was further confirmed through continuous monitoring of ligustrazine in rat serum after dosing of ligustrazine tablets to rats.
Authors:Peng Sun, Cunquan Yuan, Li Dai, Yang Xi, Yunfei Li, Ruiyang Hu, Yuhan Sun, Zhaohe Xu, and Yun Li
Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.
Authors:Q. Xu, W.J. Feng, H.R. Peng, Z.F. Ni, and Q.X. Sun
Members of WRKY gene family encode transcription factors involved in plant developmental processes and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to understand the function of the TaWRKY71 gene, a homologue gene was isolated and characterised in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype TAM107. Tissue-specific gene expression profiles indicated that TaWRKY71 was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, stamen and pistil. The relative expression of TaWRKY71 was elucidated under ABA treatment and other abiotic stresses. In agreement with this, several putative cis-acting elements involved in ABA-response, drought-inducibility, low-temperature and heat response were detected in the promoter region of TaWRKY71. The function of TaWRKY71 was further determined by transforming Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants over-expressing TaWRKY71 displayed enhanced seed germination under ABA treatment and were tolerant to salt and drought stresses. These results indicate that TaWRKY71 gene might play important roles in seed germination and abiotic stress response.
Authors:Peng Sun, Yanhong Cui, Rui Yan, and Yongfu Lian
In this study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were used to determine organochlorine pesticides (chlorothalonil and pentachloronitrobenzene) in water using dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), followed by gas chromatography (GC). The optimal adsorption conditions were determined by analyzing the effect of adsorbent dosage, adsorption time, eluent type and volume, and elution time. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity was obtained at concentrations from 10 to 400 μg L−1 with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9986. The limits of detection (LOD) for the two organochlorine pesticides were 0.025 and 0.049 μg L−1, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.080 and 0.156 μg L−1, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by measuring the recovery of the spiked samples, which ranged from 82.5% to 110.5% at spiking levels of 0.5–10 μg L−1 with relative standard deviations lower than 5.6% (n = 6). This method was successfully applied to determine the target analytes in canal water, drinking water, and water taken from the inlets and outlets of a wastewater treatment plant. The results demonstrate that the developed method has great potential for determining the two organochlorine pesticides in water samples.
Authors:Zhaoxiong Wang, Zhangyong Ning, Minhua Sun, Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Peng Xie, and Tao Ren
Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is essential for the induction of an antiviral response. Previous studies have shown that virus replication causes the activation or expression of Type I interferon (IFN) in cells, which further activates IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) to retard virus growth. In this study, after infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) with the lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain LaSota or the velogenic NDV strain GM, the mRNA and protein levels of IRF7 showed a significant increase, and part of the IRF7 protein was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In order to further explore the effect of IRF7-mediated innate immune response on the replication of NDV in CEFs, the mRNA levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and STAT1 were measured and the replication kinetics of NDV determined. The results showed that specific siRNA could inhibit the expression of IRF7 and limit the mRNA level of IFN-α, IFN-β and STAT1 and, accordingly, the replication kinetics of both NDVs were enhanced after the inhibition of IRF7. In conclusion, IRF7 is an important nuclear transcription factor for the induction of Type I IFNs during the antiviral response, which can affect the replication of NDV and spread to CEFs in the early phase of viral infection.