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Nitrergic myenteric neurons are especially susceptible to the development of neuropathy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Investigations of the similarities and dissimilarities in the organization of nitrergic neurons in the various mammalian species are therefore important in an effort to determine the extent to which the results obtained in different animal models can be generalized. In the present work, the density and the spatial organization of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum were investigated in 7 mammalian species. After nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, the Plexus Pattern Analysis software (PPAs) was applied to count the nuclei of nitrergic neurons, calculate the proportions of the areas covered by the plexus and perform randomization analysis. All 7 species exhibited a large population of nitrergic myenteric neurons, with densities in the range 12–56 cells/mm 2 . The distribution patterns of these neurons differed markedly in the different species, however, the rat was the only species in which the nitrergic neurons appeared to be randomly distributed. The PPAs in conjunction with NADPH-d histochemistry proved to be a simple and fast tool with which to reveal similarities and dissimilarities in the spatial arrangement of the nitrergic neurons in the different species.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Janka Petrilla
Gábor Mátis
Anna Kulcsár
Petra Talapka
Enikő Bíró
Máté Mackei
Hedvig Fébel
, and
Zsuzsanna Neogrády

This study investigates the metabolic effects of maize- or wheat-based diets with normal (NP) and lowered (LP) dietary crude protein level [the latter supplemented with limiting amino acids and sodium (n-)butyrate at 1.5 g/kg diet] at different phases of broiler fattening. Blood samples of Ross 308 broilers were tested at the age of 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Total protein (TP) concentration increased in wheat-based and decreased in LP groups in week 3, while butyrate reduced albumin/TP ratio in week 1. Uric acid level was elevated by wheat-based diet in week 1 and by wheat-based diet and butyrate in week 3, but decreased in LP groups in weeks 3 and 6. Aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased by wheat-based diet in week 3, and creatine kinase activity was intensified by LP in weeks 3 and 6. Blood glucose level decreased in wheat-based groups in week 3; however, triglyceride concentration was augmented in the same groups in week 3. No change of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin concentration was observed. In conclusion, an age-dependent responsiveness of broilers to dietary factors was found, dietary cereal type was a potent modulator of metabolism, and a low crude protein diet supplemented with limiting amino acids might have a beneficial impact on the growth of chickens.

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