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Abstract  

This study characterized the removal of strontium from an aqueous solution via co-precipitation followed by microfiltration (CPMF) on a lab-scale. Sodium carbonate was used as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride was added to a settler at a dosage of 20 mg/L to improve strontium removal, and it was added to a membrane separator at a dosage of 10 mg/L to reduce membrane fouling. The concentration of strontium in the raw water used in this study was about 5 mg/L. In two intermittent tests, where dosages of sodium carbonate were 2000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, the mean decontamination factors (DFs) were 237 and 158 and the mean concentration factors (CFs) were 288 and 462, respectively. Although the mean DF value was lower when the sodium carbonate dosage was 1000 mg/L instead of 2000 mg/L, the rate at which the specific flux (SF) of the membrane declined decreased as the amount of the effluent treated increased. The problem of strontium release at the beginning of the operation was controlled by a continuous test in which the dosage of sodium carbonate still was 1000 mg/L and the other parameters were the same as in the other tests. The results showed that the mean DF and CF were 157 and 480, respectively.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Jian Wang
,
Dan Zhao
,
Jie Li
,
Guohong Wang
,
Lanping Hu
,
Jiaging Shao
,
Ping Gu
,
Hong Du
, and
Yangt Wang

Our studies explore the changes of blood corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 concentrations and the pituitary ACTH expression in rats after water floating in the presence or absence of following high-intensity exercise. The rats were randomly assigned into three groups. Group A served as control; Group B received 180 minutes water floating and psychological (fear) stimulation; Group C received the same treatment as Group B in addition and 120-minutes non-stop running. Compared to Group A, Group B showed a significant increase of IL-2 (19.91 ± 2.52 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.18 ± 0.08 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05); Group C demonstrated a significant increase of CORT (977.22 ± 207.36 ng/ml vs. 434.58 ± 110.45 ng/ml, P <0.01) and IL-1β (0.21 ± 0.04 vs. 0.16 ± 0.06 ng/ml, P < 0.05), IL-2 (20.29 ± 4.23 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05) levels, and a significant decrease of ACTH (16.95 ± 5.46 vs. 22.96 ± 7.32 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Immunohistochemical staining showed the decreased number of pituitary ACTH-positive cells in both Groups B and C (P < 0.05) as compared to Group A. These results have lead us to believe that acute psychological stress can activate the pituitary-adrenal axis and lead to elevation of serum IL-2, IL-6 concentrations. Combined with high-intensity exercise, it can result in the increase of serum CORT, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 levels, and the suppression of ACTH.

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