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Poly(AN—co—St) (PAS) and poly(AN—St—MMA)(PASM) were synthetized by emulsion polymerisation. The glass transition temperatures (T g) of the copolymers and the relationship between T g and the components of the copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that T g for the AN—St bipolymers has apeak value in the range 115–118°C at a content of 50 mass% St. When methyl methacrylate was added, the T g of the terpolymer was decreased by about 2–6°C.The thermostability and the activation energy E of degradation were determined by thermogravimetric analysis.

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A micellar high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been described for simultaneous determination of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine in Ephedra Herb and two traditional Chinese preparations. The separation and determination of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine were performed using a mobile phase containing 1.75 × 10−1 mol·L−1 sodium dodecyl sulphate and 0.02 mol·L−1 potassium hydrogen phosphate with 10% (v/v) methanol at pH 3.0, running at 1.5 mL·min−1 by a Venusil XBP C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 40 °C. The detected wavelength was set at 210 nm. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. The main analytical parameters were linearity (r > 0.9990), intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD %], 0.33–1.63, and RSD %, 1.26–2.20, respectively), limit of quantifications [LOQs], and limit of detections [LODs] (2.6 × 10−4 and 7.8 × 10−5 mg·mL−1 for ephedrine, 6.8 × 10−4 and 2.0 × 10−4 mg·mL−1 for pseudoephedrine, and 5.0 × 10−4 and 1.5 × 10−4 mg·mL−1 for methylephedrine). RSDs of recoveries were <5.5% in the three samples. Based on the optimized chromatographic conditions and the eluted orders, a model of separation mechanism for the analytes was established. The results indicated that the proposed method was an accurate, “green” and cheap method.

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Molecular markers are important tools that have been used to identify the short arm of rye chromosome 1R (1RS) which contains many useful genes introgressed into wheat background. Wheat expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences are valuable for developing molecular markers since ESTs are derived from gene transcripts and more likely to be conserved between wheat and its relative species. In the present study, 35 sequence-tagged site (STS) primers were designed based on EST sequences distributed on homology group 1 chromosomes of Triticum aestivum and used to screen specific markers for chromosome 1RS of Secale cereale . Two primer pairs different from the early studies, STS WE3 , which amplified a 1680-bp and a 1750-bp fragment, and STS WE126 , which produced a 850-bp fragment from rye genome, were proved to be specific to chromosome 1RS since the corresponding fragments were only amplified from 1R chromosome addition line and wheat-rye lines with chromosome 1RS, but not from wheat-rye 2R-7R chromosome addition lines and the other lines lacking chromosome 1RS. Eleven wheat-rye lines derived from ‘Xiaoyan 6’ and ‘German White’ were used to test the presence of specific markers for 1RS. The specific fragments of 1RS were amplified in 4 wheat-rye lines, but not in the other lines. The testing results using EST-STS markers of 1RS were consistent with those obtained from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), suggesting that these markers specific to 1RS could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for incorporating 1RS into wheat cultivars in breeding.

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