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Abstract  

Fourteen new complexes with the general formula of Ln(Hmna)3·nH2O (n=2 for Ln=La-Ho and n=1 for Er-Lu, H2mna=2-mercaptonicotinic acid) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. In addition, molar specific heat capacities were determined by a microcalorimeter at 298.15 K. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes revealed that carboxyl groups of the ligands coordinated with Ln(III) ions in bidentate chelating mode. Hydrated complexes lost water molecules during heating in one step and then the anhydrous complexes decomposed directly to oxides Ln2O3, CeO2, Pr6O11 and Tb4O7. The values of molar specific heat capacities for fourteen solid complexes were plotted against the atomic numbers of lanthanide, which presented as ‘tripartite effect’. It suggested a certain amount of covalent character existed in the bond of Ln3+ and ligands, according with nephelauxetic effect of 4f electrons of rare earth ions.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of direct reduction of artificial chrome iron ore was studied by isothermal and non-isothermal methods. In the initial, middle and final periods, the reaction is controlled by nucleation and growth, a phase boundary reaction, and diffusion, respectively. In the main reaction region, the kinetic equation is 1–(1–)1/3=kt and the apparent activation energy is 270 kJ mol–1. The kinetic mechanisms found with the isothermal and non-isothermal methods do not differ, and the activation energy values are approximately the same. However, the non-isothermal method can demonstrate the kinetic process completely.

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Abstract  

Silica gel suspension is electrosprayed onto the VYNS thin film to get a circular pad. The weighed -radioactive standard solution is dropped on the circle. After drying it is covered with a thin film to get a sandwich source. A new method is developed in which the -sources of high resolution and quantification are obtained. The thin film is used to avoid the contamination of -detectors used for low-level measurements.

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Two Mn(II) chloride complexes containing guest molecules

Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures and thermal decomposition

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Q. Yang, S. Chen, and S. Gao

Abstract  

Two phenanthroline-manganese inclusion complexes with [MnCl(H2O)(phen)2]+ core have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses. Uncoordinated 2-mercaptothiazole (tzdtH) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (bztzH) as guest molecules are included in the complexes with formulas [MnCl(H2O)(phen)2]Cl·tzdtH (1) and {[MnCl(H2O)(phen)2]Cl}2·bztzH (2). X-ray structural analyses for complexes revealed that the complex 1 is triclinic, space group P1 with a=9.724(1) Å, b=11.858(1) Å, c=12.644(2) Å; β=89.056(2)°; Z=2, D c=1.513 Mg m−3, F(000)=638 and the complex 2 is triclinic, space group P1 with a=9.861(1) Å, b=11.476(1) Å; c=12.908(3) Å; β=84.991(2)°; Z=1, D c=1.511 Mg m−3, F(000)=600. Two complexes exhibit high stability up to 650°C. The molar specific heat capacities for the two complexes 1 and 2 can be estimated as being 96.175±0.332 and 72.505±0.364 J mol−1 K−1 at 298.15 K by RD496-III microcalorimeter, respectively.

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Abstract  

Five new complexes M(Hmna)2 [M=Mn(II) (1), Co(II) (2), Ni(II) (3), Cu(II) (4) and Zn(II) (5), H2mna=2-mercaptonicotinic acid] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses. In addition, molar specific heat capacities and enthalpy changes of reactions were determined by a microcalorimeter at 298.15 K. All the complexes exhibited similar IR spectra, the sulfur and oxygen atoms from monoanionic Hmna ligand coordinated to M2+ in a bidentate fashion. The thermal stability of M(Hmna)2 complexes varied in the sequence 1>2>3>4>5. The complexes were stable up to about 300°C and decomposed to oxides at higher temperatures. The molar specific heat capacities of the complexes were determined in the range between 106.452±0.399 and 145.920±0.423 J mol−1 K−1. The enthalpy changes of reactions, Δr H m θ, were determined from 18.28±0.05 to 52.59±0.07 kJ mol−1 for complexes 1–5, indicating that the thermodynamic stability of M(Hmna)2 increased in the sequence from Mn2+ to Zn2+.

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Summary

A rapid, simple, and practical high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of norephedrine (NME), norpseudoephedrine (NMP), ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylephedrine (ME) in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) which contained Ephedrae Herba (Ephedra). This analysis could be accomplished within 12.5 min with an Alltima Phenyl Column by isocratic elution using a mixture of KH2PO4 (20 mM)-acetonitrile (96:4, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.6 mL min−1 and a wavelength of 210 nm. This method was successfully applied to quantify ephedra alkaloids in both Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction and Ephedra decoction. The concentration of total ephedra alkaloids (4.62 mg mL−1) in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction was much lower than that (7.10 mg mL−1) in Ephedra decoction. Furthermore, the concentration of NME, NMP, E, PE, and ME was significantly lower in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction than that in Ephedra decoction, respectively. The method was easily acceptable and would be popular with most analytical laboratories.

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Abstract  

In our invention, FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) dry gas could be used to react with benzene without any special purification, and more than 90% ethylene was converted to ethylbenzene. The phenomenon of carbon deposition over catalyst surface was obvious and leads to a deactivation of catalyst, so it is important to study the behavior of carbon deposition of catalyst during alkylation of benzene. The influence of several factors such as temperature, reaction time, reactant concentration of the amount and the kinetics of carbon deposition were investigated, during which carbon depositing rate equations were obtained for different reactant.

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Abstract  

A novel method for the determination of rate constants of reactions, the time-variable method, is proposed in this paper. The method needs only three time points (t), peak heights () and pre-peak areas (), obtained from the measured thermoanalytical curve. It does not require the thermokinetic reaction to be completed. It utilizes data-processing on a computer to give the rate constants. Four reaction systems, including a first-order reaction, second-order reactions (with equal concentrations and with unequal concentrations) and a third-order reaction, were studied with this method. The method was validated and its theoretical basis was verified by the experimental results.

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Summary A ternary solid complex Gd(Et2dtc)3(phen) has been obtained from reactions of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaEt2dtc), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and hydrated gadolinium chloride in absolute ethanol. The title complex was described by chemical and elemental analyses, TG-DTG and IR spectrum. The enthalpy change of liquid-phase reaction of formation of the complex, Δr H Θ m(l), was determined as (-11.628±0.0204) kJ mol-1 at 298.15 K by a RD-496 III heat conduction microcalorimeter. The enthalpy change of the solid-phase reaction of formation of the complex, Δr H Θ m(s), was calculated as (145.306±0.519) kJ mol-1 on the basis of a designed thermochemical cycle. The thermodynamics of reaction of formation of the complex was investigated by changing the temperature of liquid-phase reaction. Fundamental parameters, the apparent reaction rate constant (k), the apparent activation energy (E), the pre-exponential constant (A), the reaction order (n), the activation enthalpy (Δr H Θ ), the activation entropy (Δr S Θ ), the activation free energy (Δr G Θ ) and the enthalpy (Δr H Θ ), were obtained by combination of the thermodynamic and kinetic equations for the reaction with the data of thermokinetic experiments. The constant-volume combustion energy of the complex, Δc U, was determined as (-18673.71±8.15) kJ mol-1 by a RBC-II rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard enthalpy of combustion, Δc H Θ m, and standard enthalpy of formation, Δf H Θ m, were calculated to be (-18692.92±8.15) kJ mol-1 and (-51.28±9.17) kJ mol-1, respectively.

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Abstract  

Solid complexes of M(His)2Cl2 nH2O (M=Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) of MnCl26H2O, CoCl26H2O, NiCl26H2O, CuCl22H2O and L-α-histidine (His) have been prepared in 95% ethanol solution and characterized by elemental analyses, chemical analyses, IR and TG-DTG. The constant-volume combustion energies of the complexes have been determined by a rotating-bomb calorimeter. And the standard enthalpies of formation of the complexes have been calculated as well.

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