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Abstract

This article presents an analysis of the impact of blanching and Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Cantonese bacon using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). The study aims to investigate how different processing techniques influence the composition of volatile compounds in meat products, thereby contributing to the understanding of flavour release patterns.

The experiment involved dividing pork belly into six groups: conventional (C), heat treatment (H, 50 °C, 15 s), high-temperature treatment (S, 80 °C, 5 s), conventional treatment with GBE (CG, 0.5% GBE), heat composite treatment with GBE (HG, 50 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE), and high-temperature heat composite treatment with GBE (SG, 80 °C, 15 s, 0.5% GBE). The researchers identified a total of 36 compounds in the GC-IMS spectrum. The results showed that the ethanol content decreased in the H group samples after blanching treatment, while it increased in the S group samples. The CG, H, HG, and SG groups exhibited more significant changes compared to the C group. The H group had the highest number of VOCs among all the groups. Additionally, the flavour of the H, CG, and HG group products was notably enhanced.

In conclusion, GC-IMS allows for real-time visual analysis of VOCs, and both blanching treatment and the addition of GBE significantly affect the composition of VOCs in the samples.

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Summary

In this article, a rapid, novel, and effective method was presented to separate pure steviol glycosides from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, including stevioside, rebaudioside A, and rebaudioside C, using resin-based column chromatography followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode. The separation procedure was first optimized on an analytical HILIC column and then scaled up on a preparative HILIC column using a mobile phase consisting of 83% acetonitrile in water with flow rate of 10 mL·min−1 at 25°C. 200 mg of the crude extract containing 68.1% steviol glycosides yielded 79.2 mg stevioside, 9.4 mg rebaudioside C, and 33.7 mg rebaudioside A, with the purities of 97.5%, 96.8%, and 97.2%, respectively. Those products were identified by MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.

Open access

Male sterile mutants play an important role in the utilisation of crop heterosis. Male sterile plants were found in S5 generations of maize hybrid ZH2, through continuous sib-mating by using the fertile plants in the same population, we obtained a male sterile sibling population K932MS including sterile plants K932S and a fertile plant K932F. The objective of this study was to clarify the genetic characterisation and abortion characteristics by nucleus and cytoplasm effect analyses, cytoplasm grouping, and cytological observation. The results showed that no difference was found between K932S and K932F in the vegetative growth stage, but K932S had no emerging anther or pollen grains. The segregation ratio of fertile plants to sterile plants was 1:1 in the sibling progenies, while it was 3:1 in self-crossing progenies of K932F. The sterility of K932S could be restored among reciprocal progenies when seven normal inbred lines were used as females respectively. The fertility expression of K932S crossed with 30 testers would be changed in different test-crosses and some backcross progenies. The C-type restorer Zifeng-1 (Rf4Rf4) was able to restore the fertility of K932S, and the specific PCR amplification bands of K932MS were consistent with CMSCMo17. The anther of K932S began abortion at dyad with its tapetum expanded radically and vacuolated: this induced abnormality in the shapes of both dyads and tetrads. The microspore could not develop normally, and then it collapsed and gradually disappeared. Hence, K932MS is a C-type cytoplasmic male sterile mutant with a pollen-free, stable inheritance: it has potential application value for further research.

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Summary

A rapid and sensitive method for the identification and quantification of yohimbine in Pausinystalia yohimbe is described. The method used is liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QIT/MS). The yohimbine standard solution was directly infused into the ion trap mass spectrometers (IT/MS) for collecting the MSn spectra. The major fragment ions of yohimbine were confirmed by MSn at m/z 355, 224, 212, and 144, in the positive-ion mode. The possible main fragment ion cleavage pathway was studied. Yohimbine provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ion [M + H]+. The method is reliable and reproducible, and the detection limit is 0.1 ng mL-1. The method was validated in the concentration range 0.1–50 μg mL−1; the intra- and interday precision ranged from 1.36% to 2.73% and the accuracy was 96.5–108.2%. The mean recovery of yohimbine was 97.1–101% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) <1.93%. The LC-IT/MS method was successfully applied to determine the yohimbine in P. yohimbe.

Open access
Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
L. Zhang
,
Z. Yan
,
S. Dai
,
Q. Chen
,
Z. Yuan
,
Y. Zheng
, and
D. Liu

Two experiments to investigate the crossability of Triticum turgidum with Aegilops tauschii are described. In the first experiment, 372 wide hybridization combinations were done by crossing 196 T. turgidum lines belonging to seven subspecies with 13 Ae. tauschii accessions. Without embryo rescue and hormone treatment, from the 66220 florets pollinated, 3713 seeds were obtained, with a mean crossability percentages of 5.61% which ranged from 0 to 75%. A lot of hybrid seeds could germinate and produce plants. Out of 372 combinations, 73.12% showed a very low crossability less than 5%, 23.39% showed the crossability of 5–30%, 2.69% showed the crossability of 30–50%, 0.81% showed high crossability more than 50%, respectively. Among the seven T. turgidum subspecies, there were significant differences in crossability. The ssp. dicoccoides and dicoccon showed the highest crossability, while polonicum the lowest. All the crossability percentages more than 30% were obtained from the crossing of ssp. dicoccoides or dicoccon with Ae. tauschii .In the second experiment, the genetics of crossability was investigated using T. turgidum ssp. durum cultivar Langdon and the D-genome disomic substitution lines of Langdon. Compared with the control Langdon, lines 7D(7A) and 4D(4B) showed higher crossability, which suggested that chromosomes 7A and 4B of tetraploid wheat cv. Langdon carried dominant alleles inhibiting crossability with Ae. tauschii . The relationships of present results with previously reported crossability genes of wheat are discussed.

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Summary

A reversed-phase chiral liquid chromatographic method had been developed and validated for resolution of the enantiomers of racemic fudosteine. The effects on the separation of the amounts of anhydrous cupric sulfate and l-phenylalanine, the methanol content, mobile phase pH, and temperature were investigated. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, sample recovery, solution stability, and limits of detection (LOD). l-Phenylalanine and anhydrous cupric sulfate as chiral ligand-exchange complexes were used for separation, isomer identification, related substance investigation, and analysis of fudosteine enantiomers in fudosteine bulk drugs and fudosteine tablets.

Open access
Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Z.L. Li
,
H.Y. Li
,
G. Chen
,
X.J. Liu
,
C.L. Kou
,
S.Z. Ning
,
Z.W. Yuan
,
M. Hao
,
D.C. Liu
, and
L.Q. Zhang

Seven Glu-A1 m allelic variants of the Glu-A1 m x genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1 a , 1Ax2.1 b , 1Ax2.1 c , 1Ax2.1 d , 1Ax2.1 e , 1Ax2.1 f , and 1Ax2.1 g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1 a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1 m x alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1 m x can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
G. Chen
,
M.H. Zhang
,
X.J. Liu
,
J.Y. Fu
,
H.Y. Li
,
M. Hao
,
S.Z. Ning
,
Z.W. Yuan
,
Z.H. Yan
,
B.H. Wu
,
D.C. Liu
, and
L.Q. Zhang

Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H.Y. Li
,
Z.L. Li
,
X.X. Zeng
,
L.B. Zhao
,
G. Chen
,
C.L. Kou
,
S.Z. Ning
,
Z.W. Yuan
,
Y.L. Zheng
,
D.C. Liu
, and
L.Q. Zhang

High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins associated with bread-making quality in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). Variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is scare. Diploid Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm) is the first cultivated wheat. In the present study, allelic variations at the Glu-A1 m x locus were systematically investigated in 197 T. monococcum ssp. monococcum accessions. Out of the 8 detected Glu-A1 m x alleles, 5 were novel, including Glu-A1 m -b, Glu-A1 m -c, Glu-A1 m -d, Glu-A1 m -g, and Glu-A1 m -h. This diversity is higher than that of common wheat. Compared with 1Ax1 and 1Ax2*, which are present in common wheat, these alleles contained three deletions/insertions as well as some single nucleotide polymorphism variations that might affect the elastic properties of wheat flour. New variations in T. monococcum probably occurred after the divergence between A and Am and are excluded in common wheat populations. These allelic variations could be used as novel resources to further improve wheat quality.

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