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Abstract  

Sorption of Th(IV) on Zr2O(PO4)2 as a function of contact time, reaction temperature, pH, ionic strength and solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V) is studied under ambient condition by using batch technique. Effects of fulvic acid (FA), phosphate, sulfate and citrate on Th(IV) sorption are investigated in detail. A pseudo-second-order rate equation is used to simulate the kinetic sorption. The removal of Th(IV) increases with increasing pH and hardly depends on ionic strength. Sorption of Th(IV) increases with increasing m/V and reaction temperature. The presence of FA and phosphate enhances the sorption of Th(IV) on Zr2O(PO4)2 while sulfate and citrate decrease the sorption. The Langmuir and Freundlich models are used to simulate the sorption isotherm of Th(IV) on Zr2O(PO4)2 at different temperatures. The thermodynamic data (i.e., ∆H 0, ∆S 0, ∆G 0) are calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms. The results suggest that the sorption process of Th(IV) on Zr2O(PO4)2 is spontaneous and endothermic.

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Abstract

A heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst was prepared using the complex tris(1,10)-phenanthroline iron(II) loaded on the NaY type of zeolite. The catalyst displayed a feature of the photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue, and a linear relationship between ln(C0/Ct) and reaction time was obtained, indicating the kinetic characteristics of a pseudo first-order reaction. The repeated cyclic experiments showed that the heterogeneous catalyst was stable and recoverable. Compared with the traditional homogeneous Fenton reagent, the heterogeneous catalyst has the advantage in the neutral or weakly basic medium used because the active component tris(1,10)-phenanthroline iron(II) is a stable chelate compound. The photo-Fenton degradation pathway for methylene blue was given based on the mass spectral data.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Qian Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Min Wang, Jiecheng Ren, Yijun Chen, Xueli Chen, Zhengde Wei, Jingwu Sun, and Xiaochu Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leads to serious impairments in cognitive functions, and lacks of effective treatments. Cue-induced craving is a hallmark feature of this disease and is associated with addictive memory elements. Memory retrieval-extinction manipulations could interfere with addictive memories and attenuate addictive syndromes, which might be a promising intervention for IGD. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of a memory retrieval-extinction manipulation on gaming cue-induced craving and reward processing in individuals with IGD.

Methods

A total of 49 individuals (mean age: 20.52 ± 1.58) with IGD underwent a memory retrieval-extinction training (RET) with a 10-min interval (R-10min-E, n = 24) or a RET with a 6-h interval (R-6h-E, n = 25) for two consecutive days. We assessed cue-induced craving pre- and post-RET, and at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups. The neural activities during reward processing were also assessed pre- and post-RET.

Results

Compared with the R-6h-E group, gaming cravings in individuals with IGD were significantly reduced after R-10min-E training at the 3-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Moreover, neural activities in the individuals with IGD were also altered after R-10min-E training, which was corroborated by enhanced reward processing, such as faster responses (P < 0.05) and stronger frontoparietal functional connectivity to monetary reward cues, while the R-6h-E training had no effects.

Discussion and Conclusions

The two-day R-10min-E training reduced addicts’ craving for Internet games, restored monetary reward processing in IGD individuals, and maintained long-term efficacy.

Open access