The combustion energy of thioproline was determined
by the precision rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K to be ΔcU= –2469.301.44 kJ mol–1.
From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy
of combustion and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioproline
were calculated to be ΔcHmθC4H7NO2S,
(s), 298.15 K= –2469.921.44 kJ mol–1
and ΔfHmθC4H7NO2S, (s), 298.15K= –401.331.54
Authors:Qiang Xu, Andrea Majlingova, Martin Zachar, Cong Jin, and Yong Jiang
Correlation algorithms are used to analyse the relationship amongst heat release rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide generated in cone calorimetry test of material flammability. These correlation algorithms include Pearson's correlation, Spearman's rank correlation and Kendall's rank correlation. Cone test data of seven materials are analysed. These materials are two kinds of polyvinyl chloride wall panel, glass-reinforced plastics, vinyl panel, polymethyl methacrylate, polyurethane and two types of expanded polystyrene foam. Correlation coefficients are calculated for cone calorimeter results from tests at 50 kW m−2 of these materials. The distribution of the coefficients would be used to discriminate the test materials according to the so-called FO-categories which can help to predict the time to flashover.
Authors:Lanping Ye, Hua Xu, Xiaodong Jin, Qiang Li, and Lizhe An
This study is aimed at observing the apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax gene expression of mammalian cells following heavy-ion and X-ray
irradiations. Exponentially growing human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells cultured in vitro were irradiated with a 12C ion beam of 50 MeV/u (corresponding to a LET value of 44.56 keV/μm) from Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)
at doses varying from 0 to 3 Gy. The X-ray irradiation (8 MV) was performed in the therapy unit of the General Hospital of
the Lanzhou Military Area. Survival fractions of irradiated cells at various doses were measured by means of MTT assay. Apoptotic
cells after irradiation were analyzed with fluorescence microscope and flow cytometer (FCM). Immuno-histological assay were
applied to detect the expression of Bcl-2/Bax genes in the irradiated cells. The survival fraction of SMMC-7721 cells decreased
gradually (vs. control p<0.05) with increasing the dose of the carbon ion beam more obviously than X-ray irradiation, and the carbon ion irradiation
efficiently induced cell apoptosis and significantly promoted the expression of Bax gene while Bcl-2 gene expression was restrained.
High-LET heavy ion beam would induce cell apoptosis effectively than low-LET X-ray, and the apoptosis rate is correlated with
the transcription of Bcl-2/Bax and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells after irradiation to heavy ion
Authors:Fei Tuo, Lian Zhou, Cuihua Xu, Yongxiang Yao, Tianshan Ren, and Qiang Zhou
In order to compare cosmic radiation dose for air crew including pilot and flight attendant between polar route flight and
non-polar route flight, a typical polar flight route that is from Beijing to New York was selected and compared with non-polar
route. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter and track etch detector CR-39 were worn as personal dosimeters to measure
the cosmic radiation dose to air crew. The mean annual effective dose for air crew from polar route and non-polar route was
(5.79 ± 0.92) mSv/year and (2.14 ± 0.64) mSv/year, respectively. The effective dose per 1,000 flight hours for air crew was
(3.10 ± 0.27) mSv/1,000 h and (2.21 ± 0.46) mSv/1,000 h, respectively. The result is analyzed by using SPSS 15.0 statistical
software. There was significant difference between the two groups for both mean annual effective dose (t = 30.25, P < 0.05) and the effective dose per 1,000 flight hours (t = 7.60, P < 0.05). The dose to pilot was higher than that of flight attendant for both polar route and non-polar route, and there was
significant difference between them, for polar route (t = 7.96, P < 0.05), for non-polar route (t = 4.70, P < 0.05). The effective dose from cosmic radiation to air crew of polar route was higher than that of non-polar route, however,
it did not exceed 20 mSv/year, which is the limit on cosmic radiation exposure set by many countries in the world.
Authors:L. Xu, Y. De-Jun, L. Qiang-Guo, L. Ai-Tao, Y. Li-Juan, J. Qian-Hong, and L. Yi
The product from reaction of samarium chloride hexahydrate with salicylic acid and Thioproline, [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimetric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [SmCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C4H7NO2S(s)] and [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H7NO2S)·H2O(s)] in a mixed solvent of absolute ethyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and 3 mol L−1 HCl were determined by calorimetry to be ΔsHmΦ[SmCl3 δ6H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −46.68±0.15 kJ mol−1 ΔsHmΦ[2C7H6O3 (s), 298.15 K]= 25.19±0.02 kJ mol−1, ΔsHmΦ[C4H7NO2S (s), 298.15 K]=16.20±0.17 kJ mol−1 and ΔsHmΦ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −81.24±0.67 kJ mol−1. The enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔsHmΦ =123.45±0.71 kJ mol−1. From date in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Sm(C7H5O3)2(C4H6NO2S)δ2H2O(s) was estimated to be ΔsHmΦ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O(s), 298.15 K]= −2912.03±3.10 kJ mol−1.
Authors:L. Qiang-Guo, H. Yi, L. Xu, Y. Li-Juan, X. Sheng-Xiong, Y. De-Jun, and L. Yi
The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at
298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔrHmΘ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be ΔfHmΘ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.
3-(4-[18F]fluorobenzyl)-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one ([18F]FHTP) was in vitro and in vivo evaluated as a putative dopamine D4 receptor radioligand. Its inhibition constant (Ki) for cloned human dopamine D4.2 receptor was determined to be 2.9 nM and it displayed a 2000-fold D4-selectivity over the D2long subtype. Its partition coefficient (logP) was measured to be 1.11. Biodistribution, blocking distribution and metabolism studies in rats demonstrated that the specific
distribution of [18F]FHTP in brain regions, suggesting that [18F]FHTP may be a suitable PET imaging agent for in vivo studies of the dopamine D4 receptor.