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  • Author or Editor: Réjean Landry x
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Abstract  

This paper addresses four questions: What is the extent of the collaboration between the natural sciences and engineering researchers in Canadian universities and government agencies and industry? What are the determinants of this collaboration? Which factors explain the barriers to collaboration between the university, industry and government? Are there similarities and differences between the factors that explain collaboration and the barriers to collaboration? Based on a survey of 1554 researchers funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the results of the multivariate regressions indicate that various factors explain the decision of whether or not to collaborate with industry and the government. The results also differed according to the studied fields. Overall, the results show that the variables that relate to the researcher’s strategic positioning, to the set-up of strategic networks, to the costs related to the production of the transferred knowledge and transactions explain in large part the researcher’s collaboration. The results of the linear regression pointed to various factors that affect collaboration with researchers: research budget, university localization, radicalness of research, degree of risk-taking culture and researcher’s publications. Finally, the last part of the paper presents the results, and what they imply for future research and theory building.

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Abstract

Research assessment carries important implications both at the individual and institutional levels. This paper examines the research outputs of scholars in business schools and shows how their performance assessment is significantly affected when using data extracted either from the Thomson ISI Web of Science (WoS) or from Google Scholar (GS). The statistical analyses of this paper are based on a large survey data of scholars of Canadian business schools, used jointly with data extracted from the WoS and GS databases. Firstly, the findings of this study reveal that the average performance of B scholars regarding the number of contributions, citations, and the h-index is much higher when performances are assessed using GS rather than WoS. Moreover, the results also show that the scholars who exhibit the highest performances when assessed in reference to articles published in ISI-listed journals also exhibit the highest performances in Google Scholar. Secondly, the absence of association between the strength of ties forged with companies, as well as between the customization of the knowledge transferred to companies and research performances of B scholars such as measured by indicators extracted from WoS and GS, provides some evidence suggesting that mode 1 and 2 knowledge productions might be compatible. Thirdly, the results also indicate that senior B scholars did not differ in a statistically significant manner from their junior colleagues with regard to the proportion of contributions compiled in WoS and GS. However, the results show that assistant professors have a higher proportion of citations in WoS than associate and full professors have. Fourthly, the results of this study suggest that B scholars in accounting tend to publish a smaller proportion of their work in GS than their colleagues in information management, finance and economics. Fifthly, the results of this study show that there is no significant difference between the contributions record of scholars located in English language and French language B schools when their performances are assessed with Google Scholar. However, scholars in English language B schools exhibit higher citation performances and higher h-indices both in WoS and GS. Overall, B scholars might not be confronted by having to choose between two incompatible knowledge production modes, but with the requirement of the evidence-based management approach. As a consequence, the various assessment exercises undertaken by university administrators, government agencies and associations of business schools should complement the data provided in WoS with those provided in GS.

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Abstract

As an adaptation to its new environment, universities have engaged in various organisational innovations and taken a more active role in the orientation of the researcher. The emerging institutional management imposes specific constraints and opportunities for researchers. Thus, the impact of institutional membership, notably on the different institutional policies, is increasingly a dominant force in academic working lives. However, some scholars have argued that the context of researchers remains an Ivory Tower situation, where academic working life is defined through the twin discourse of academic freedom and professional autonomy. This article analyses the activities of research faculty members funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, in comparison to the theories that contribute to the explanation of researchers’ behaviour. By using intra-class correlation, which is based on a multi-level analysis of the variance distribution, we find that the grouping effect is still small. In other words, despite the emerging constraints and opportunities determined by their institutional context, researchers still exist in an Ivory Tower, where the explanation of their behaviour is still a matter of individual differences.

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Abstract  

The research questions are as follows: to what extent do Canadian medical school faculty members have person-to-person interactions with individuals working in public and private sector organizations? What are the characteristics of Canadian medical school faculty members who interact with individuals working in these work settings? Are these different network patterns complementary or substitute? The data used for this study are from a cross-sectional survey of Canadian medical school faculty members (n = 907). Structural multivariate ordered probit models were estimated to explore the characteristics of faculty members with different network patterns and to see if these network patterns are complementary or substitute. Study results suggest that the different network patterns considered in the study are not conflicting, but that some patterns correspond to different faculty member profiles.

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