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The paper makes the following novel claims: (1) the semantics of noun--noun compounds which is activated by metaphor and/or metonymy (often termed as "exocentric" compounds in linguistics and generally regarded as semantically opaque) can be accounted for with the help of conceptual metaphor and metonymy theory; (2) there are regular patterns of metaphor- and metonymy-based compounds, depending on which constituent is affected by conceptual metaphor and/or metonymy. In the second part of the paper I look at a subtype of metaphor- and metonymy-based noun--noun compounds, where the simultaneous activation of both metaphor and metonymy affects the meaning, and give an account of the productive patterns that underlie this type.

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In the spring of 2010 Greece officially turned to the EU for help in order to prevent itself from a sovereign default. However, the Treaty on European Union explicitly prohibits any member state to ask for a so-called bailout (i.e., financial assistance) from the other member states or the EU itself. Thus, overnight the Greek financial crisis became a linguistic one as well: how to communicate the notion of financial assistance without implying one? In light of this conundrum, the paper investigates how leading European and American newspapers have communicated the financial assistance by looking at the rather diverse expressions used for the notion of “bailout” that appeared in select articles published on the pivotal dates of the crisis management process. We hypothesized that as the Greek crisis developed, multiple and alternating frames were used in communicating the news on crisis management through the lexical choices the journalists used. The data justified the hypotheses: while the first phase was dominated by the RELIEF frame, this was eventually superseded by the BAILOUT frame by 2 May, the day the deal was finally struck. At the same time, the BUSINESS TRANSACTION frame never appeared as the most significant conceptualisation, implying that journalists were reluctant to view the deal between the two (eventually, three) parties as the result of a rational horizontal relationship between “buyer” and “seller” or between “debtor” and “creditor”.

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The Hungarian colour terms piros and vörös

A corpus and cognitive linguistic account

Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Réka Benczes and Erzsébet Tóth-Czifra

A number of studies have been written on the Hungarian colour terms piros and vörös, both denoting ‘red’, focusing on either one of the following questions: (1) disambiguating the meanings of the two terms; or (2) their status in Hungarian as basic colour terms. The present paper attempts to resolve these issues in one go by adopting a combined approach of corpus and cognitive linguistics. The paper makes the following three hypotheses: (1) as vörös had more time to undergo idiomatization, there will be significant differences and systematic trends between the type/token ratios of the two terms; (2) piros is a more generic term used for a larger and looser range of concepts, while vörös is associated with a more limited range of concepts; and (3) piros is mostly used in its primary, literal sense, while vörös is more inclined to be used in a figurative sense. After a thorough corpus and cognitive linguistic analysis of data extracted from the updated Hungarian National Corpus, the paper comes to the general conclusion that vörös is not a basic colour term of Hungarian.

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This study attempts to investigate how Hungarians think about life. By applying a nationwide representative survey of Hungarian adults, we wished to answer the following two research questions: a) what are the major metaphorical conceptualizations of life among Hungarians?; and b) what factors, such as socio-economic status and basic value orientations, might influence the prevalence for the metaphors used to talk about life? Our results suggest that there are considerable generational differences: while the negative mindset (in the form of more negative metaphors) is still common within the older generation, there is a shift towards a more positive and more “American” conceptualization of life among younger people in Hungary.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: János Bencze, Viktória Simon, Erika Bereczki, Réka Majer, Gréta Varkoly, Balázs Murnyák, János Kálmán, and Tibor Hortobágyi


A Lewy-testes demencia a második leggyakoribb neurodegeneratív demencia. A pontos diagnózisa gyakran csak neuropatológiai vizsgálattal lehetséges. A betegség fő morfológiai jellemzője a kóros α-szinukleinben gazdag Lewy-test és Lewy-neurit – csakúgy, mint a rokon kórkép Parkinson-kór és az ahhoz társuló demencia esetén. A patomechanizmus fontos tényezői a neurotranszmitter rendszerek zavara, a szinaptikus diszfunkció és az ubikvitin-proteaszóma rendszer elégtelen működése. Jellemző a kognitív teljesítmény fluktuációja, parkinsonizmus és vizuális hallucináció. Mivel gyakran nem típusos a klinikai kép és időbeni lefolyás, a képalkotó eljárások és biomarkerek elősegíthetik a korai felismerést. Noha hatékony oki terápia nincs, életminőséget javító kezelések lehetségesek. A klinikopatológiai vizsgálatok kiemelten fontosak a patomechanizmus jobb megértése, a pontos diagnózis és a hatékony terápia érdekében. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(17): 643–652.

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