Authors:Alica Letnická, Viera Karaffová, Mikuláš Levkut, Viera Revajová and Róbert Herich
Campylobacteriosis is mainly caused by infection with Campylobacter jejuni following consumption or handling of Campylobacter-contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 on TGF-β4 and IL-17 expression and on immunocompetent cell distribution after C. jejuni infection in broiler chicken, as a second part of the previous study of Karaffová et al. (2017). Accordingly, day-old chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 10 chicks each (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni CCM6191 (CJ), and combined E. faecium AL41 + C. jejuni CCM6191 (EFAL41 + CJ). Samples from the caecum were collected on days 4 and 7 post Campylobacter infection (dpi), for the isolation of mRNA of TGF-β4, IL-17 and for immunohistochemistry. The relative mRNA expression of TGF-β4 was upregulated in the combined (EFAL41 + CJ) group compared to other groups during both samplings, but the expression of IL-17 was downregulated. Similarly, the highest density of CD3+ was detected in the combined group at 7 dpi, but the number of IgA+ cells was increased in both groups with EFAL41. It was concluded that the EFAL41 probiotic E. faecium strain can modulate the expression of selected cytokines (upregulation of TGF-β4 but downregulation of IL-17 relative expression), and activate IgA-producing cells in the caeca of chicks infected with C. jejuni CCM6191.
Authors:Mikuláš Levkut, Juraj Pistl, Andrea Lauková, Viera Revajová, Robert Herich, Zuzana Ševčíková, Viola Strompfová, Renáta Szabóová and Tatiana Kokinčáková
The protective effect of
EF 55 against
serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4) was studied in 1-day-old chicks. The EF 55 strain (isolated and characterised by the authors earlier) was applied daily (1.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS) for 7 days. Oral inoculation of the SE PT4 strain was performed on day 8 in a single dose of 5.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS. The experiment lasted for 21 days. Samples were collected on day 1 of the experiment to verify the absence of
, on day 8 to check colonisation of EF 55 and immunological status in experimental birds, and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 after SE PT4 infection of chicks. Strain EF 55 sufficiently colonised the digestive tract of chicks after 7 days of application. The highest numbers of EF 55 in the faeces of chicks were observed before SE infection and persisted to day 6 post infection (p.i.) in both the EF and EF+SE groups. PCR confirmed the identity of the EF 55 strain. The counts of SE PT4 strain in faeces of the EF+SE group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the SE group on days 2 and 14 p.i. (P < 0.01). The significant reduction of salmonellae in the caecum was recorded at the end of the experiment (day 14 p.i.) in the EF+SE group in comparison to the SE group (P < 0.01). At day 4 p.i., colonies of
. Enteritidis PT4 were found in the liver of chicks of the SE group in a higher concentration than in chicks of the EF+SE group (P < 0.001). Salmonellae were isolated from the liver until days 8 and 6 p.i. in the SE and EF+SE groups, respectively. The mean values of actual lymphocyte subpopulations in the blood and the relative percentage of caecal intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD44, TCR, MHC II and IgM) were not influenced at a statistically significant level by the application of the EF 55 and/or the SE PT4 strain. The results demonstrate the antimicrobial effect of
EF 55 against
. Enteritidis PT4.