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Abstract  

Multielement neutron activation analysis has been applied to the determination of macro, micro and trace amounts of Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc and V in molasses of Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Naga Hammady and Abu Korkass cane sugar factories. The threshold element concentrations are acceptable and below the safety. Differences in element concentrations may be related to different botanic textures and structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants, corrosion of containers or changes in soil as a result of geochemical differentiation. The method is sensitive down to 0.038 ppm of V. The relative errors due to counting statistics are in the range of 0.2–11%.

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Abstract  

Lake Nasser, one of the largest man made lakes in the world, is the reservoir created by the High Dam in the southermost part of Egypt and extends beyond Daal Cataract in the Sudan. The reservoir is about 480 kms long, of which, 300 kms are in Egypt (Lake Nasser) and 180 kms in the Sudan (Lake Nubia) and extends approximately within the latitudes of 21 No in the Sudan and 24 No in Egypt. In the west is the Great Western Desert and in the east the Eastern Desert of Egypt which extends up to the Red Sea. The deepest part is found near the High Dam (Lake Nasser) which reaches approximately about 86 metres. The depth decreases to the south and reaches approximately about 15 meters at Akasha in the Sudan. The Lake is much more wider in the egyptian part. The attached map shows the geographical locations of the lake from which the samples were collected. This work deals with the determination of 38 trace elements in water by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Also some parameters such as pH, (electric conductance), CO2−, HCO 3 , CO2, SO 4 2− , residue (after evaporation), dissolved oxygen, NO 2 and temperature were determined in the field. The temperature ranged from 20.7–29.7°C, while the pH values from 7.45 to 9 (for the bottom and surface waters). The dissolved oxygen was determined and found to be 0.8–9.4 mg/l for bottom and surface waters, respectively.

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Determination of trace elements of egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis

II. Trace elements in umbelliferae and legumirosae families

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Sherif, R. Awadallah, and A. Mohamed

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis, NAA, a high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer was used to determine the concentration of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W, and Zn in Cumin, coriander, carrots, and Daucus carrota (Umbelliferae Family), alfalfa, Kidney bean, Phaseolus sativus, Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, lenses, and fenugreek (Legumirosae Family). Multielement determination technique on destructive and nondestructive samples was followed. This method is simple, precise and sensitive to 17 trace elements.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, was utilized for the determination of Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and W in 12 Tilapia Nilotica samples collected from the Aswan High Dam Lake following the destructive techniques.

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Abstract  

The concentration of 18 elements in different cane sugar products, i.e., cane sugar plants, crude and syrup juices, molasses, and the end products of the consumer sugar, were analyzed and processed. The samples were collected from five citics, i.e., Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Deshna and Naga Hammady in Upper Egypt where the main Egyptian sugar industry factories are located. INAA was applied for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na and Sc, while Cu, Li, P, Sn, V and Zn were determined by ICP-AES and Pb and As were determined by AAS. These three analytical methods were applied to optimize the sensitivity and the accuracy of the measurements in order to provide a sound basis for the obtention of reliable clustering results.

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Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis

III. Trace elements in african tea, ginger, canella bark, black pepper, sesame, lady's fingers, jew's mallow, tomatos, cucumber and marrow

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Sherif, R. Awadallah, and A. Amrallah

Abstract  

Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea, and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperaceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seeds (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made to the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb).

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Abstract  

A study was undertaken to determine element concentrations in Aswan High Dam Lake sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 40 to 500 km upstream of the dam to follow the sedimentation process and the distribution of Th, U and the trace elements in the lake. INAA was applied for the determination of Sm, Ce, Lu, Th, Cr, Yb, Au, Hf, Ba, Nd, Cs, Tb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, and Sb, while Laser Fluorimetry was applied for U determination. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the techniques were tested with IAEA standard materials (SL, Soil-7). The U values ranged from 4 ppm to 18 ppm, Th values were between 2 and 10 ppm, and showed a very good correlation with the rare earth elements and Fe. The distribution of most of the elements in the lake follows the same trend as the distribution of the clays in the sediments. Ba showed a negative correlation with most of the elements under investigation.

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Abstract  

Multielemental instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses are utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P. Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth.

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Abstract  

Major, minor, trace and ultratrace concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in crude juice, principal juice, sirup juice (produced during the successive stages of sugar industry), sugar cane plant, molasses, deposits (produced as a result of the addition of Ca(OH)2 and superphosphate and passage of SO2 through juice), A-and B-sugar and soil samples have been determined by destructive and nondestructive instrumental neutron activation (INAA), atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) analyses. The results obtained by the methods applied are in excellent agreement. Concentrations of the elements are different. Variations in element concentrations in cance plants and in crude juice may be attributed to composition changes or different botanical structures; in mixed juice, sirup, molasse and deposits they may be due to chemical treatments or corrosion effects on containers, whereas in soil samples to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation as a result of adsorption and uptake of trace elements by plants from surrounding soil solutions.

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