The method of agitation has a great influence on the kinetics of adsorption of cobalt by synthetic geothite /-FeOOH/ suspended in 10–2 mol l–1 NaCl at pH 7. Three methods of agitation were compared, reciprocating shaking, continuous stirring and intermittent stirring, and only with the latter was equilibrium achieved. This suggests that in sorption systems with a solid phase subject to aggregation of particles the breakdown of aggregates can be prevented by intermittent stirring.
Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.
Isolates of Pestalozzia theae Saw. and Trichoderma spp. were collected from Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI) farm area, Bangladesh. The cultural morphology and antagonistic potentiality of Trichoderma spp. against grey blight pathogen Pestalozzia theae was studied for tea cultivation. The antagonistic potentiality of Trichoderma spp., against Pestalozzia theae showed maximum (inhibition 84.45±0.77%) after 72 hrs of inoculation under in vitro condition followed by 76.02±3.50% after 24 hrs of inoculation. This study revealed that Trichoderma strain was highly effective to control Pestalozzia theae, the causal agent of grey blight disease of tea.
Maydis leaf blight (MLB), a serious foliar fungal disease of maize, may cause up to 40% losses in yield. The present studies were undertaken to identify the stable sources of MLB resistance, its inheritance study, and testing of MLB resistance linked markers from diverse background in the Indian adapted tropical maize genotypes. A set of 112 inbred lines were screened under artificially created epiphytotics conditions at three hotspot locations. Analysis across multi-locations revealed significant effects of genotypes and environments, and non-significant effects due to genotypes × environment interaction on disease incidence. A total of 25 inbred lines with stable resistance were identified across multi-locations. Inheritance of resistance was studied in six F1s and two F2s of resistant and susceptible parents. The null hypothesis of segregation of resistance and susceptible for mono and digenic ratios in two F2 populations was rejected by Chi-square test. The non-significant differences among the reciprocal crosses depicted the complete control of nuclear genome for MLB resistance. Partial dominance in F1s and normal distribution pattern in F2s of resistant and susceptible parents suggested polygenic nature of MLB resistance. Correlation studies in F2 populations exhibited significant negative correlation between disease score and days to flowering. Five simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers, found associated to MLB resistance in different studies were unable to differentiate amongst MLB resistance and susceptible parents in our study. This emphasizes the need of fine mapping for MLB resistance in Indian germplasm. The identified stable sources of resistance and information on inheritance study can be used further in strengthening of resistance breeding against MLB.