Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: R. Daniel x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

This paper reviews the history of research performance evaluation in the university sector of the Federal Republic of Germany over a fifteen-year period from 1975–88. While the first studies were rankings of entire institutions, recent studies have focused on performance differences between departments and individual researchers of the same discipline. Many different performance measures have been used to rank universities and departments within disciplines. Differences in conceptualization, data collection, counting and weighting procedures, however, make it very difficult to generalize findings across studies. This first generation of German research evaluation studies should, therefore, be viewed more as examplifying interesting methodological approaches than as offering definitive and clear-cut conclusions. Nevertheless some important lessons have been learnt from fifteen years of studies on university research performance evaluation.

Restricted access

Etude de quelques reactions nucleaires induites par les neutrons rapides de pile

Application au dosage radiochimique, plus specialement du silicium

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
W. Haerdi
and
R. Daniel

Abstract  

In the first part, the fast-neutron flux available in reactor cores was utilized to define experimentally the sensitivity for the determination of 12 different elements, based on fast-neutron nuclear reactions. The fluxes available with our AGN-201 P reactor are in the range of 109–1010 n·cm−2·sec−1 in the 1–4 MeV region. A good sensitivity was obtained for27Al,52Cr,56Fe,28Si,23Na [by (n, p) reaction],27Al,31P,89Y [by (n, α) reaction] and197Au,183W,89Y [by (n, n′) reaction]; the elements Cl, Ca, Pb failed to give reactions. In the second part, a non-destructive method for the determination of silicium based on the reaction28Si(n, p)28Al is proposed. The limit of determination is about 0.6 mg for a neutron flux of 109 n·cm−2·sec−1. As an example, Si in dimethylpolysilane was determined.

Restricted access

Abstract

Social chatbots powered by artificial intelligence (AI) may be particularly appealing to individuals with social deficits or conditions that affect their social functioning. In this letter, we discuss some of the noteworthy characteristics of social chatbots and how they may influence adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, including the potential for ‘dependency’ on chatbots. We call for more independent studies to evaluate the potential developmental and therapeutic effects of this increasingly popular technology.

Open access

Frullania ramuligera , an overlooked, rare and long-lost liverwort, has been rediscovered in the southern Western Ghats in India after nearly two centuries. Till now the collection made by Perrottet during 1834–1839 in the Nilgiri Hills is the only representative of this species.

Restricted access
Physiology International
Authors:
Michael S. Brian
,
Ryanne D. Carmichael
,
Felicia R. Berube
,
Daniel T. Blake
,
Hunter R. Stuercke
, and
Evan L. Matthews

Abstract

No studies have directly measured ventilatory and metabolic responses while wearing a respiratory training mask (RTM) at rest and during exercise. Eleven aerobically fit adults (age: 21 ± 1 years) completed a randomized cross-over study while wearing an RTM or control mask during cycling at 50% Wmax. An RTM was retrofitted with a gas collection tube and set to the manufacturer's “altitude resistance” setting of 6,000 ft (1,800 m). Metabolic gas analysis, ratings of perceived exertion, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured during rest and cycling exercise. The RTM did not affect metabolic, ventilation, and SpO2 at rest compared to the control mask (all, effect of condition: P > 0.05). During exercise, the RTM blunted respiratory rate and minute ventilation (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to control. Similar increases in VO2 and VCO2 were observed in both conditions (both, effect of condition: P > 0.05). However, the RTM led to decreased fractional expired O2 and increased fractional expired CO2 (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to the control mask. In addition, the RTM decreased SpO2 and increased RPE (both, effect of condition: P < 0.05) during exercise. Despite limited influence on ventilation and metabolism at rest, the RTM reduces ventilation and disrupts gas concentrations during exercise leading to modest hypoxemia.

Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Daniel L. King
,
Abel Nogueira-López
,
Christina R. Galanis
,
Toshitaka Hamamura
,
Christian Bäcklund
,
Alessandro Giardina
,
Joël Billieux
, and
Paul H. Delfabbro

Abstract

Gaming disorder (GD) screening often involves self-report survey measures to detect the presence of symptoms. Studies have shown that gamers' responses vary greatly across survey items. Some symptoms, such as preoccupation and tolerance, are frequently reported by highly engaged but non-problematic gamers, and therefore these symptoms are thought to lack specificity and are suggested to be less important in classification decisions. We argue that the influence of response categories (e.g., dichotomous responses, such as ‘yes’ or ‘no’; or frequency categories, such as ‘rarely’ and ‘often’) on item responses has been relatively underexplored despite potentially contributing significantly to the psychometric performance of items and scales. In short, the type of item response may be just as important to symptom reporting as the content of survey questions. We propose some practical alternatives to currently used item categories across GD tools. Research should examine the performance of different response categories, including whether certain response categories aid respondents' comprehension and insight, and better capture pathological behaviours and harms.

Open access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Veronika Vágvölgyi
,
Lisa Daniel
,
Caroline Pinto
,
J. Kristóf
,
R. Frost
, and
Erzsébet Horváth

Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of the clay mineral attapulgite has been studied using a combination of dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis. In the dynamic experiment two dehydration steps are observed over the 20–114 and 114–201°C temperature range. In the dynamic experiment three dehydroxylation steps are observed over the temperature ranges 201–337, 337–638 and 638–982°C. The CRTA technology enables the separation of the thermal decomposition steps. Calculations show the amount of water in the attapulgite mineral is variable. Dehydration in the CRTA experiment occurs as quasi-isothermal equilibria. Dehydroxylation occurs as a series of non-isothermal decomposition steps. CRTA technology offers better resolution and a more detailed interpretation of the decomposition processes of a clay mineral such as attapulgite via approaching equilibrium conditions of decomposition through the elimination of the slow transfer of heat to the sample as a controlling parameter on the process of decomposition. Constant-rate decomposition processes of non-isothermal nature reveal partial collapse of the layers of attapulgite as the attapulgite is converted to an anhydride.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

Attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli is associated with increased severity of gambling disorder. However, the addiction-related moderators of attentional bias among those who gamble are largely unknown. Impulsivity is associated with attentional bias among those who abuse substances, and we hypothesized that impulsivity would moderate the relationship between disordered electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling and attentional bias.

Methods

We tested whether facets of impulsivity, as measured by the UPPS-P (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (cognitive, motor, non-planning) moderated the relationship between increased severity of gambling disorder, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and attentional bias. Seventy-five EGM players participated in a free-viewing eye-tracking paradigm to measure attentional bias to EGM images.

Results

Attentional bias was significantly correlated with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) motor, positive urgency, and negative urgency. Only positive and negative urgency moderated the relationship between PGSI scores and attentional bias. For participants with high PGSI scores, higher positive and negative urgency were associated with larger attentional biases to EGM stimuli.

Discussion

The results indicate that affective impulsivity is an important contributor to the association between gambling disorder and attentional bias.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Matthias Brand
,
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Astrid Müller
,
Rudolf Stark
,
Daniel L. King
,
Anna E. Goudriaan
,
Karl Mann
,
Patrick Trotzke
,
Naomi A. Fineberg
,
Samuel R. Chamberlain
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Elisa Wegmann
,
JoËl Billieux
, and
Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Background

Gambling and gaming disorders have been included as “disorders due to addictive behaviors” in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Other problematic behaviors may be considered as “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors (6C5Y).”

Methods

Narrative review, experts' opinions.

Results

We suggest the following meta-level criteria for considering potential addictive behaviors as fulfilling the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”:

1. Clinical relevance: Empirical evidence from multiple scientific studies demonstrates that the specific potential addictive behavior is clinically relevant and individuals experience negative consequences and functional impairments in daily life due to the problematic and potentially addictive behavior.

2. Theoretical embedding: Current theories and theoretical models belonging to the field of research on addictive behaviors describe and explain most appropriately the candidate phenomenon of a potential addictive behavior.

3. Empirical evidence: Data based on self-reports, clinical interviews, surveys, behavioral experiments, and, if available, biological investigations (neural, physiological, genetic) suggest that psychological (and neurobiological) mechanisms involved in other addictive behaviors are also valid for the candidate phenomenon. Varying degrees of support for problematic forms of pornography use, buying and shopping, and use of social networks are available. These conditions may fit the category of “other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”.

Conclusion

It is important not to over-pathologize everyday-life behavior while concurrently not trivializing conditions that are of clinical importance and that deserve public health considerations. The proposed meta-level-criteria may help guide both research efforts and clinical practice.

Open access