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Abstract

According to our initial assumption, there would be two characteristic strategies for Romani catching up. One strategy is to lift the Romanies out of poverty and bring their living conditions closer to the average living conditions of the majority society. According to the other strategy, Romanies create a national minority in the majority society. It should be supported so that the members of the community could preserve their national characteristics and exercise their minority rights. By reviewing the literature (e.g., Armillei 2014; Boscoboinik & Giordano 2008; Ladányi & Szelényi 2016) we searched in which country which strategies are being followed by current governments. The result is that these strategies coexist within a country and are increasingly intermingled according to existing governments. The reason for this phenomenon is the recent changes in Romani societies and the emergence of new middle classes. There are both economic and cultural conditions for emerging these middle classes. A successful Romani strategy has to contain therefore, both economic and cultural actions. The governments of the region must contribute not only to the catching-up of the Romanies but also to the formation of their Romani middle classes.

Open access

Abstract

What happens, if a university moves to a town that never had a higher education institution previously? What is the impact of this development both on the community and the institution? The aim of this paper is to answer this question. The authors use the concept of ‘social innovation’ for understanding the developments. An institute may initiate, organise and coordinate all kinds of learning that takes place in a given community (Bradford, 2003). To do so, the institute may have to change its missions (not only its third, but also its first, second and third ones. These developments could be interpreted as a ‘social innovation’ during which the local economy and society was challenged and they looked for new responses. As suggested in the ‘social innovation’ literature the main research method was participatory research, combined with structured and semi-structured interviews, story-telling and narrative analyses. As a result, three interest groups could be described with various requirements different demands toward the university; while the university had to modify its structure, curriculum and communications. The main lesson to learn is that ’social innovation’ as a frame of interpretation can be used to understand the developmental processes that occurred between the locals and a new university.

Open access

A survey was carried out in three stud farms with grazing animals, in order to gather data on the prevalence and clinical manifestation of, and the fly species involved in, traumatic myiasis of horses in Hungary. This parasitic disease was recorded in each farm. On the whole, 9.0% (14) of the inspected horses were infested with fly larvae. The affected horses had one infested lesion only, located at the mucosa of the vulva or the vaginal vestibule. The clinical symptoms depended on the age of infestation. Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was the only myiasis-causing fly species identified. It was assumed that unknown volatile chemicals might be responsible for the attraction of gravid females to the undamaged vulvar region. These odours are supposed to be produced during different physiological and/or pathological events associated with oestrus, prolonged puerperal period or inflammation of tissues. Daily inspection of grazing horses and early treatment of the affected areas are needed to avert significant damage to the infested horses.

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Abstract

After wheat, rye is the second most important raw material for bread and bakery products, and it is one of the most excellent sources of dietary fibres and bioactive compounds. Besides, rye is utilised in more and more other food products as well, such as breakfast cereals, porridges, pasta, snack products, etc. Interestingly, its production is decreasing worldwide, probably because of the expansion of other cereals (e.g. triticale), but also the effect of climate change can also play a role therein. However, there is no doubt that scientific research aimed at studying the possible health benefits and the potential of rye in the development of novel food products has intensified over the past decade.

The aim of our paper is to make a comprehensive review of the latest results on the compositional and technological properties of rye that fundamentally influence its utilisation for food purposes. Furthermore, this review aims to identify the current development directions and trends of rye products.

Open access

The turbulence intensity is an important feature of the turbulent airflow and draught sensation in ventilated rooms. The turbulence is often measured with hot-wire (in fluid mechanics applications) and hot-sphere sensors (in indoor air comfort investigations). In this paper the turbulence was measured with hot-wire and hot-sphere sensors in a full-scale single office room based on air speed measurements. Isothermal air injection was applied and the measurements were conducted on eight different inlet volume flow rates. The two applied sensors resulted two independent samples, which were evaluated with different statistical methods. The results showed that there was not significant difference between the standard deviation and average of the measured samples. Thus, the two sensors statistically gave the same results on probability level 95%.

The referred international standards suggest an average turbulence intensity 40% for draught comfort design in mixing ventilation. The results showed that most of the measured turbulence intensities were less than the recommended standard turbulence intensity.

Open access

Befogadók vagy jogvédők?

A roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmái

Social Inclusion or Legal Protection?

The Dilemma of Roma Educational Policy in Hungary Today
Educatio
Authors:
Katalin Forray R.
and
Tamás Kozma

Összefoglaló. A befogadás (inklúzió) eredetileg a szegénypolitika (szociálpolitika) szakkifejezése volt. Onnan terjedt át a társadalompolitikába és a pedagógiába (gyógypedagógia). A Lisszaboni Egyezmény (2000) óta az Európai Unió hivatalos állásfoglalásaiban visszatérően szerepel mint törekvés a „társadalmi kohézió” erősítésére. A jogvédelem eredete visszanyúlik az 1960-as évtized amerikai polgárjogi mozgalmára. Két eset ismertetésével a szerzők bemutatják a kétféle mozgalom hasonlóságait és különbségeit; összekapcsolva őket a roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmáival. A roma/cigány szegénység még mindig szükségessé teszi a befogadás politikáját. Ugyanakkor a szegénységből kiemelkedő roma/cigány középosztály köreiben erősödik a politizálás szándéka és a jogvédelem igénye.

Summary. “Inclusion” has initially been a social policy term. Its use spread from there to policies of welfare, healthcare and education (special education). Inclusion has repeatedly mentioned since the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) in European Union resolutions as an effort to strengthen “social cohesion”. “Legal protection”, on the other hand, goes back to the American civil rights movement of the 1960s. By describing two Hungarian cases, the authors present the similarities and differences between the two policies; linking them to the dilemmas of Roma education policy. Inclusion as a social policy is still necessary because of existing Roma poverties. At the same time, the intention to politicize and the need for legal protection is growing among the new Roma middle class, which emerges out of poverty and steps into the political arena.

Open access

Közösségi tanulás járvány idején

Social Learning in Pandemic

Educatio
Authors:
Katalin Forray R.
and
Tamás Kozma

Összefoglaló. A társadalmi innovációt és közösségi tanulást kutatók általában társadalmi méretű természeti katasztrófákból indulnak ki (Moulaert et al. 2013: 113–130). Mi a járványt próbáljuk úgy tekinteni, mint az egész közösséget érő kihívást, amely új tanulásokat és innovációkat eredményez (Márkus–Kozma 2019: 5–17). Paradigmatikus kutatási módszerünk a résztvevő megfigyelés (Moulaert–MacCallum 2019: 115–120). Ezt kiegészítjük a szociális média elemzésével, valamint célzott interjúkkal és folyamatos monitorozással. Az események lefutására példaként az oktatást (tanárokat, tanulókat, szülőket és fönntartókat) használtuk. Négy lakossági csoportot és jellegzetes magatartásaikat sikerült körvonalaznunk a kormányzat mint aktor mellett: a „lojálisakat”, a „vádaskodókat”, az „aktívakat” és az „innovatívakat”. Az oktatásügy története a járványveszély idején változó dinamikát mutat. A járványveszély kihirdetésekor a civilek innovativitása fellángolt; ezt azonban a kormányzati adminisztráció később fokozatosan visszaszorította. A kívánatos ezzel szemben a felek partnersége lett volna.

Summary. Researchers of social innovation and community (social) learning usually start their analyses from natural disasters (Moulaert et al. 2013: 113–130). In this paper, we defined the first six weeks of pandemic threat (COVID-19) in Hungary as a community-wide challenge that resulted in new learning and innovation (Márkus–Kozma 2019: 5–17). We choose participatory observation as the main research method (Moulaert–MacCallum 2019: 115–120) which was complemented by social media analysis as well as targeted interviews and ongoing monitoring. We used education (teachers, students, parents and owners of institutions) as an example. We outlined four population groups and their typical attitudes towards the government’s anti-virus education policy: the “loyal”, the “accuser”, the “active” and the “innovative”. The education policy showed changing dynamics at the time of the epidemic threat. When the threat was announced, the innovativeness of civilians flared up; however, this was later gradually suppressed by government decisions. The desired, on the other hand, would have been a partnership between the parties.

Open access

Abstract  

The title compound 3,3-dinitroazetidinium (DNAZ) 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (3,5-DNSA) was prepared and the crystal structure has been determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG techniques. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG curves by Kissinger method, Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The kinetic model function in differential form and the value of E a and A of the decomposition reaction of the title compound are f(α)=4α3/4, 130.83 kJ mol−1 and 1013.80s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of thermal explosion of the title compound is 147.55 °C. The values of ΔS , ΔH and ΔG of this reaction are −1.35 J mol−1 K−1, 122.42 and 122.97 kJ mol−1, respectively. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with a continuous C p mode of mircocalorimeter. Using the relationship between C p and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initiation to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was obtained.

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