The coat protein gene (CP) from a highly virulent, necrotic and dominant strain of potato virus Y (PVY) originated from the Hungarian flora has been engineered via Agrobacterium infection into different Hungarian tobacco breeding lines and cultivars. The integration of the CP was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic preparations. The transcription and the expression of the integrated CP gene were detected by Northern and Western analysis. The pathogen-derived resistance was demonstrated by inoculation of the R1 progeny of transformant plants with purified PVY. The efficiency of the protection varied between different transgenic tobaccos ranging from complete to no protection. The challenge infection of the plants was monitored by dot blot hybridisation at different intervals after mechanical inoculation. Western blot analysis showed that there is no correlation between the level of expressed CP and the extent of resistance. From tobacco cultivars namely Virgin D, Stamm C2 and Hevesi 11, 38, 55 and 23 transformants were obtained, respectively. After several years of greenhouse experiments, only the extreme resistant tobaccos were planted field under the special licence, given by the competent authority. In field conditions, transgenic tobacco varieties showed extreme resistance against natural infection of PVY.
Authors:R. Józsa, Z. Stasevski, I. Wolf, S. Horváth and E. Balázsi
The coat protein (CP) gene from a necrotic strain of potato virus Y (PVY) has been engineered into two-old Hungarian cultivars, namely cv. Mindenes and Somogyi kifli. The integration of the coat protein gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA preparations. The transcription and the expression of the integrated CP gene was followed by Northern and Western blot. The pathogene derived resistance was demonstrated by mechanical inoculation of the transformant plants after the transfer of the regenerants into soil. The efficiency of the virus protection varied between different potatoes ranging to complete protection to no protection. All plants were tested in field conditions under the special licence, given the competent authority instructed by the Hungarian gene technology act. In two consecutive years three Mindenes independent transformants proved to be highly resistant against two different strains of PVY in provocative experiment.
Authors:Andrea R. Varga, György Szakmány, Sándor Józsa and Zoltán Máthé
Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian) coal-bearing fluvial sediments (Téseny Sandstone Formation) of the Slavonian-Drava Unit and their reworked pebbles and cobbles occurring in the western part of the Mecsek Mountains in Miocene conglomerate sequences (Szászvár Formation) were studied. Based on the petrographic and geochemical characteristics, the sandstone studied consists of arkose, subarkose, litharenite and sublitharenite. The main clastic source was a recycled orogenic area (collision suture and fold-thrust belt) dominated by metamorphic rocks. It was associated with a probably Variscan magmatic arc as indicated by the volcanic rock fragments. The original source area of these clastic sediments was felsic and the analyzed sandstone could correspond to a continental arc/active margin tectonic suite. The pebble and cobble-sized clasts of the conglomerate were predominantly derived from acidic and intermediate volcanic rocks, low-grade regional metamorphic rocks (different types of schist, metasandstone, mylonite, metagranitoid, gneiss, quartzite, and metaquartzite) and siliceous sedimentary rocks. Among the sedimentary clasts, reworked black siltstone and fine-grained sandstone from older (possibly Carboniferous) deposits are common. Chert and contact metamorphic rocks are present in minor quantity. The extracted volcanic clasts consist of andesite, trachyandesite, dacite and rhyolite. Their geochemistry suggests convergent, active continental margin affinity. Upper Carboniferous siliciclastic successions are widely known at the southeastern margin of the European Variscides. In the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the Cracow Sandstone Series (Westphalian C and D) shows a similar petrographic composition to that of the Téseny Sandstone Formation. Additionally, volcanic clasts of the Upper Carboniferous conglomerate from southern Transdanubia and the calc-alkaline volcanites from the Intra-Sudetic Basin can be characterized by similar geochemical patterns.
Authors:L. Palkovics, R. Kryldakov, Júlia Novák Nádudvari, Rita Józsa and E. Balázs
Experimental fields of a tobacco breeding station in Hungary at Debrecen were surveyed for potato virus Y (PVY) populations for over a decade. In this field, hundreds of crosses were grown regularly and most of them were lines and hybrids genetically resistant against potato virus Y. From 1993, transgenic tobacco lines bearing the coat protein gene of the new tuber necrotic strain of potato virus Y (NTN) were planted in this experimental field and tested yearly for their virus resistance and the durability of their resistance. During this period, no peculiar strain of PVY was observed, judging from symptoms or using biological tests. In the last five year period the biological observations of PVY isolates were combined with partial molecular analysis. The coat protein gene of PVY from all different isolates collected yearly was cloned, and the most variable 5' ends of the genes were sequenced and compared. All isolates belonged to the new tuber necrotic strain except one, showing the relative stability of the potato virus Y population in an area where genetically different tobacco lines, including transgenic ones, are grown and exposed to natural infection.
Authors:A Muller, N Gal, J Betlehem, N Fuller, P Acs, GL Kovacs, K Fusz, R Jozsa and A Olah
We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light—dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light—dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p < 0.05. Interaction of lighting regimen and CMS was proved to be significant according to time spent in the light compartment and the average number of changes between the light and dark compartments. Results of our examination confirm that the changes of lighting conditions evocate anxiety more prominently than CMS. No significant differences were found between the results of the low rotating group and the control group, supposing that this schedule is the least harmful to health. Our results on the association between the use of lighting regimens and the level of CMS provide evidence that the fast rotating shift work schedule puts the heaviest load on the organism of animals.
Authors:J. Németh, B. Jakab, R. Józsa, T. Hollósy, A. Tamás, A. Lubics, I. Lengvári, P. Kiss, Zs. Oberritter, B. Horváth, Z. Szilvássy and D. Reglődi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has two molecular forms
with 38 and 27 amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to develop a new, highly specific PACAP-27 assay to investigate
the quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 in the central nervous system of various vertebrate species applying the same technical
and experimental conditions. Our results show that the antiserum used turned to be PACAP-27 specific. The average ID50 value was 51.5±3.6 fmol/ml and the detection limit was 2 fmol/ml. PACAP-27 immunoreactivity was present in the examined brain
areas, with highest concentration in the rat diencephalon and telencephalon. Swine and pigeon brain also contained significant
amount of PACAP-27. Our results confirm the previously described data showing that PACAP-38 is the dominant form of PACAP
in vertebrates, since PACAP-38 levels exceeded those of PACAP-27 in all examined brain areas. Furthermore, our study describes
for the first time, the comparative quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 and-38 in the swine and pigeon brain.