Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become an emerging digital technology in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. There is a growing demand on applying BIM for sustainable design including the building energy simulation (BES). Lack of sufficient interoperability has caused barriers to utilize the information from BIM for BES. In this study, the interoperability between BIM and four different BES tools (i.e., Ecotect, EQUEST, Design Builder and IES-VE) was explored by using a case study of a residential building in the design stage. The misrepresented information from BIM to multiple BES tools were identified based on six different categories of building information parameters. The research proposed an approach of creating gbXML file with an improved integrity of information in BIM. Overall, this study would lead to further work in developing platforms for improving the information transformation from BIM to BES.
Authors:T. Nakanishi, K. Don-Jin, T. Kitamura, R. Ishii, and M. Matsubayashi
Cowpea (Vigna unguliculata Walp) is considered one of the most drought resistant species among the pulse crops. It was suggested that in the lower part
of the stem, parenchymatous tissue for storing water has been developed for the function of drought resistance. However, such
tissue has not been identified yet. In order to identify the water storing tissue in the stem of cowpea plant, the authors
performed neutron radiography, which provides a non-destructive image of water distribution pattern in a plant. Common bean
plant and soybean plant were used as references. Comparing the neutron radiograph for the stems of the plants, i.e., cowpea,
common bean and soybean plants, the parenchymatous tissue with water storing function was distinguished in the intermode between
primary leaf and the first trifoliate leaf specifically in cowpea plant.
Authors:Liu Yuren, Lu Yanxin, Xie Yali, Wang Yonghai, Du Youling, Tan Jin, Meng Bonian, and R. Seymour
This paper introduces the principles, instrumentation, implementation, and industrial applications of an on-line thermal neutron prompt-gamma element analysis system (using a252Cf neutron source, Am–Be neutron source, or neutron generator). The energy resolution of the system at the H prompt-gamma full-energy photopeak (2.22325 MeV) is 3.6 keV. The concentration measurement error of Al2O3, FeO3, CaO, and SiO2 is ±0.3%, ±0.1%, ±0.4%, and ±0.4%, respectively. The system has been tested on-site at both the Shandong and the Zhengzhou Aluminium Works. Our preliminary on-site measurements confirm that the stability, reliability, measurement range, and accuracy of the system can meet the requirements of the aluminium production process. Facilitation of this measurement at aluminium plants is expected to reduce plant costs by over 3 million dollars annually through reduced energy consumption, more rapid qualification of pulps being mixed during the production process, and in reduced labor costs.
Authors:H. Y. Jin, Q. Hui, J. Y. Jun, A. Ch. Ju, L. D. Sen, D. R. Qian, and Q. R. Lin
Three isoforms of metallothionein protein induced with Zinc were isolated and purified from housefly larvae, Musca domestica, by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75, G-25 and anion exchange on DEAE-52 chromatography. Among them, one was found to possess antibacterial activity, and was further characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sulphydryl group determination, enzyme hydrolysis, and spectra property. Our results showed that the novel protein has the characteristics of heat-stable, low-molecular weight (6 kDa), rich-cysteine (approximately 12 cysteine residues in one molecule), metal affinity, and antibacterial activity. This paper was the first to report that metallothionein had antibacterial activity. We expect that this characteristic would give some help to investigate definite physiological functions of metallothionein.
Authors:Z. Wu, F. Li, L. Huang, Y. Shi, X. Jin, S. Fang, K. Chuang, R. Lyon, F. Harris, and S. Cheng
The thermal mechanical properties and degradation behaviors were studied on fibers prepared from two high-performance, heterocyclic polymers, poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole) (PBZT) and poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBZO). Our research demonstrated that these two fibers exhibited excellent mechanical properties and outstanding thermal and thermo-oxidative stability. Their long-term mechanical tensile performance at high temperatures was found to be critically associated with the stability of the C—O or C—S linkage at the heterocyclic rings on these polymers' backbones. PBZO fibers with the C—O linkages displayed substantially higher thermal stability compared to PBZT containing C—S linkages. High resolution pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry provided the information of the pyrolyzates' compositions and distributions as well as their relationships with the structures of PBZT and PBZO. Based on the analysis of the compositions and distributions of all pyrolyzates at different temperatures, it was found that the thermal degradation mechanisms for both of these heterocyclic polymers were identical. Kevlar®-49 fibers were also studied under the same experimental conditions in order to make a comparison of thermo-oxidative stability and long-term mechanical performance at high temperatures with PBZO and PBZT fibers. The data of two high-performance aromatic polyimide fibers were also included as references.
Authors:B. Bisplinghoff, V. Bradnova, R. Brandt, K. Dwivedi, V. Butsev, E. Friedlander, S. Gosh, Guo Shi-Lun, M. Heck, Jin Huimin, M. Krivopustov, B. Kulakov, C. Laue, L. Lerman, Th. Schmidt, A. Sosnin, and Wang Yu-Lan
An extended Cu-target was irradiated with 22 and 44 GeV carbon ions for about 11.3 and 14.7 hours, respectively. The upper side of the target was in contact with a paraffin-block for the moderation of secondary neutrons. Small holes in the moderator were filled with either lanthanum salts or uranium oxide. The reaction
was studied via the decay of239Np(2.3 d) as well as the reaction U(n,f) using radiochemical methods. In addition, solid state nuclear track detectors were used for fission studies in gold. The yields for the formation of (n,) products agree essentially with other experiments on extended targets carried out at the Dubna Synchrophasotron (LHE, JINR). To a first approximation, the breeding rate of (n, ) products doubles when the carbon energy increases from 22 to 44 GeV. If, however, results at 44 GeV are compared in detail to those at 22 GeV, we observe an excess of (37±9)% in the experimentally observed239Np-breeding rate over theoretical estimations. Experiments using solid state nuclear track detectors give similar results. We present a conception for the interpretation of this fact: There is the evident connection between anomalies we observe in the yield of secondary particles in relativistic heavy ion interactions above a total energy of approximately 30–35 GeV and increased yield of neutrons in this energy region.
Authors:Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, and Xiao-Yi Fang
Background and aims
Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts.
Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop).
The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC.
Discussion and conclusions
These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.