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Abstract  

The purified bentonite parent clay, fraction ≤; 2 mm of montmorillonite type, has been pillared by various polyhydroxy cations, Al, AlFe and AlCu, using conventional pillaring methods. The thermal behavior of PILCs was investigated by combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA, TG) and low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (LTNA). Thermal stability of Al-, AlFe- and AlCu-PILC samples was estimated after isothermal pretreatment in static air on the temperatures 300, 500, 600 and 900C. Crucial structural changes were not registered up to 600C, but the fine changes in interlayer surrounding and porous/microporous structure being obvious at lower temperatures, depending on the nature of the second pillaring ion. AlFe-PILC showed higher thermal stability of the texture, the AlCu-PILC having lower values and lower thermal stability concerning both overall texture and micropore surface and volume. Poorer thermal stability of AlCu-PILC sample at higher temperatures was confirmed, the presence of Cu in the system contributing to complete destruction of aluminum silicate structure, by 'extracting' aluminum in stabile spinel form.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: J. Varga, R. Kiss, T. Mátrai, T. Mátrai, and J. Téren

Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. This mycotoxin is a common contaminant of various food products including cereal products, spices, dried fruits, coffee, beer and wine. Besides cereal products, beer and wine contribute significantly to ochratoxin exposure of humans. We examined the ochratoxin content of Hungarian wines and beers using an immunochemical technique. The detection limit of this technique is 0.01mg l-1. Altogether 65 wine and 25 beer samples were analysed. The presence of ochratoxin A was confirmed by HPLC in positive samples. Ochratoxin A was detected in 97.7% of wines, with ochratoxin concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.533mg l-1. The mean ochratoxin A concentration in wines was 0.110mg l-1. Only one of the Hungarian wines examined contained more than 0.5mg l-1ochratoxin A, the previously suggested EU limit for wine. Our data indicate that red wines are more frequently contaminated, and have higher mean ochratoxin contamination (0.117mg ml-1) than white wines (0.0967mg ml-1), in accordance with previous observations. A North-South gradient in wine ochratoxin concentrations is not evident from our data. For beers, all but one of the samples was found to be contaminated with small amounts of ochratoxin A with a mean concentration of 0.127mg l-1(range: 0.030-0.250mg l-1). Only one of the beers contained ochratoxin A above 0.2mg l-1, the anticipated European Community maximum allowable limit in beer. We could not detect correlation between the type and origin of beer and ochratoxin contamination.

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Abstract  

The purpose of the present work was to study the compatibility of metronidazole with different pharmaceutical excipients (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, poly(ethylene oxide), microcrystalline cellulose, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate) using differential scanning calorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was the only excipient that showed interaction with metronidazole even before storage. Changes referring to a possible transition to dihydrate form were observed in the thermal curves of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate after four weeks of storage. Although dicalcium phosphate dihydrate can be replaced by the anhydrous form in pharmaceutical formulations, the observed transition might negatively influence the stability of dosage forms.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Andrea Bistyák, S. Kecskeméti, R. Glávits, I. Tischler, S. Nagy, G. Kardos, and I. Kiss

An epizootic of Pacheco’s disease is reported from a zoo bird population. The infection was introduced by wild-captured Patagonian conures ( Cyanoliseus patagonus ) despite 61 days of quarantine. The disease affected several parrot species and, interestingly, three out of seven bearded barbets ( Lybius dubius ). The mortality rate was 30.93%. Autopsy revealed abdominal hyperaemia with liver haemorrhages and, in less rapid cases, yellowish discoloration and fragility of the liver. Death was caused by the collapse of circulation. Histopathology demonstrated liver cell necrosis, disintegration of the lobular structure, and a few intranuclear inclusion bodies. Icosahedral virions were detected by electron microscopy. The virus was isolated in the allantoic cavity of embryonated chicken eggs as well as in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. A 281-bp-long fragment of psittacid herpesvirus DNA was detected by PCR in cell culture material and liver samples of the affected birds. To our knowledge this is the first report of Pacheco’s disease in bearded barbets as well as the first occurrence of Pacheco’s disease in Hungary.

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors: Péter Rózsa, Gyula Szö?r, Zoltán Elekes, Bernard Gratuze, Imre Uzonyi, and Árpád Z. Kiss

Obsidian samples from different localities of various geologic settings (Armenia, Hungary, Iceland, Mexico, Slovakia and Turkey) were analyzed by particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples from Mexico and Iceland show higher alkali and REE content as well as higher Nb and Ta abundances than the other samples. Discrimination diagrams show samples from Mexico and Iceland to belong to WPG. The position of the samples from the Tokaj Mts is also definite, and it corresponds to the expectation (VAG or VAG+syn-COLG fields). Using a Li-B diagram the obsidian samples can be distinguished according to their geographic distribution. By means of a Ce-Ti diagram, obsidian from the Tokaj Mts can be divided into three groups that may correspond to the archeometrical C2E, C2T and C1 groups. Phenocrysts in the obsidian samples from the Tokaj Mts, and the Aragats Mts (Armenia) were detected and analyzed by micro-PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) method. In this way silicate minerals (zircon, pyroxene, biotite, plagioclase feldspars), ore minerals (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite), and other non-silicate mineral (anhydrite) were identified.

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Pherocon AM (PhAM) trapping and visual counting are two commonly used methods for identifying maize fields in the USA that contain a sufficient number of adult western corn rootworms (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte to cause economic root damage by larvae the following year. Therefore, the estimation of adult WCR population plays an important role in management decisions (rotation or treatment). The goals of this study were (1) to compare adult WCR data obtained by PhAM trapping to “whole plant count” data in different maize developmental stages, (2) to determine the period in which the data obtained by both methods show the highest correlation, (3) to determine the regression curve between capture of WCR on PhAM as an independent variable and number of WCR observed by visual plant count, and (4) to determine if the “whole plant count” method can serve as a substitution for PhAM trapping under European conditions. Three samplings were conducted in 2006 in 38 fields in Croatia and one sampling was conducted in 22 fields in Serbia. Sampling in Croatia was conducted when maize plants were in the R 65-69, R 73-77 and R 79-85 developmental stages according to BBCH identification keys of maize. Sampling in Serbia was conducted when maize plants reached R 69-71 developmental stages. Three to six PhAM traps were placed in each 0.5 to 4 ha maize field seven days prior to sampling. Visual counts were conducted on the same day as trap inspections. Adult WCR densities in the PhAM traps were correlated to adult densities on whole plants. Statistical analyses comparing the results of PhAM trapping with the visual “whole plant count” method showed that there is a significant medium to strong correlation between them. Correlation coefficients varied depending on the data used in the analysis. When sampling was conducted in the first half of August (maize developmental stages R 69-77), the correlation coefficients were the highest (r(R 6971) = 0.8677 and r(R 73-77) = 0.706). Coefficients of determination were the highest as well [r2 (R 69-71) = 0.753; r2 (R 73-77) = 0.4984]. Therefore, the most appropriate period for sampling is during the first half of August. At that time, the majority of the maize plants were between the R 69 and R 77 developmental stages. According to the results, 0.5–1 visually determined adult/plant corresponds to 40 adults/trap/week. This shows that both methods are equally useful for estimating the population densities of WCR in the Central European region.

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Abstract  

Aerosol samples collected around the Chilean site Lonquimay during major volcanic activities in January 1989 have been subjected to microPIXE measurements of 1 mm lateral resolution in the Debrecen Institute. Elemental concentrations relative to calcium have been determined for Al, Si, P, S, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba in 187 individual aerosol particles with the particle sizes between 15 mm and 1 mm. On the basis of a cluster analysis performed on the data set we defined eight clusters. Scatter plots for selected pairs of elements as Si/Al, K/Si, S/Cl, and Al/S elemental ratios that are considered as signatures characterizing types and mechanisms in volcanic eruption - have been compared with published data available in the literature for various volcanic sites.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Krisztina Szabadfi, P. Kiss, D. Reglodi, E. Fekete, A. Tamas, B. Danyadi, T. Atlasz, and R. Gabriel

Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) is a corticotrop releasing factor paralog peptide with many physiological functions and it has widespread distribution. There are some data on the cytoprotective effects of Ucn 2, but less is known about its neuro- and retinoprotective actions. We have previously shown that Ucn 2 is protective in ischemia-induced retinal degeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective potential of Ucn 2 in monosodium-glutamate (MSG)-induced retinal degeneration by routine histology and to investigate cell-type specific effects by immunohistochemistry. Rat pups received MSG applied on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9 and Ucn 2 was injected intravitreally into one eye. Retinas were processed for histology and immunocytochemistry after 3 weeks. Immunolabeling was determined for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vesicular glutamate transporter 1, protein kinase Cα, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin. Retinal tissue from animals treated with MSG showed severe degeneration compared to normal retinas, but intravitreal Ucn 2 treatment resulted in a retained retinal structure both at histological and neurochemical levels: distinct inner retinal layers and rescued inner retinal cells (different types of amacrine and rod bipolar cells) could be observed. These findings support the neuroprotective function of Ucn 2 in MSG-induced retinal degeneration.

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The goal of the study was to find a proper technique to fix tendon grafts into an INSTRON loading machine. From 8 human cadavers, 40 grafts were collected. We removed the bone-patella tendon-bone grafts, the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, the quadriceps tendon-bone grafts, the Achilles tendons, and the peroneus longus tendons from each lower extremity. We tested the tendon grafts with five different types of fixation devices: surgical thread (Premicron 3), general mounting clamp, wire mesh, cement fixation, and a modified clamp for an INSTRON loading machine. The mean failure load in case of surgical thread fixation was (381N ± 26N). The results with the general clamp were (527N ± 45N). The wire meshes were more promising (750N ± 21N), but did not reach the outcomes we desired. Easy slippages of the ends of the tendons from the cement encasements were observed (253N ± 18N). We then began to use Shi’s clamp that could produce 977N ± 416N peak force. We combined Shi’s clamp with freezing of the graft and the rupture of the tendon itself demonstrated an average force of 2198 N ± 773N. We determined that our modified frozen clamp fixed the specimens against high tensile forces.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: R.V Salamon, É. Vargáné-Visi, Cs.D. András, Zs. Csapóné Kiss, and J. Csapó

The addition of synthetic CLA is a possible way in order to compose foods enriched with conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs). The most environmental friendly methods for CLA synthesis are based on microbial biosynthesis. With homogeneous catalysis using organometallic catalysts (Ru and Rh complexes) high (approximately 80%) yields were obtained with high selectivity related to bioactive isomers. The heterogeneous catalysis has the advantage that at the end of the reaction there is no need for a supplementary separation operation or recycling of the catalyst. In heterogeneous process, the maximum yield may even be higher than 90% and the selectivity remains quite high as the reaction conditions are optimized. The substrates for obtaining CLAs are, in general, linoleic acid or alkyl linoleates and the catalysis is acidic. The yield and the selectivity depend on the strength and the type of acidic sites, as well as on the size distribution of the particles. Beside the existing catalytic methods, a photocatalytic process with UV and visible light irradiation with iodine promoter can be applied.

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