The metal distaffs, both symbolic and real ones, and the spindle-whorls known from Pannonia are discussed and their distribution is described on the basis of the bronze and iron distaffs and the spindle-whorl found in the late Imperial Period cemetery of the Keszt-hely-Fenékpuszta fortress in 2000.
Recent German finds from the territory of the fortification of Keszthely-Fenékpuszta
. Many characteristic German objects are known from the cemeteries of the fortification. The four objects found on the territory of the fortification, which are described in this study, complete the number of these objects. In 2002, a gilded bronze dress pin with a head representation from the beginning of the 7
century was found during investment-led excavation on the territory of so-called building “A”. A mould with the representation of “weapon dancers” was recovered at the same place in 1979. An iron shield boss was unearthed together with other objects from the beginning of the 5
century in a refuse pit during the excavations in 2002. A private collector found a sabretache mount from the second half of the 6
century on the surface in the E part of the fortification.
One of the greatest concerns in community ecology is to find how species composition patterns are related to different environmental and spatial conditions. This approach is especially interesting when applied to high diversity heterogeneous forests such as the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest sensu lato. The present study aims to verify the existence of indicator species in four southern Atlantic Rainforest formations and identify relationships among distributions of tree species with environmental and spatial variables. For that, tree species density data of 21 phytosociological surveys were collected from the literature. The data were analyzed using indicator species and partial canonical redundancy analysis (partial RDA). Sandy coastal formation contained the greatest number of indicator species (17), followed by Atlantic rainforest (10), cloud forest (4) and Araucaria forest (3). The partial RDA analysis explained 22% of total data variation, of which 11% was assigned to the environment, 5% to space, 6% to spatial component of environmental influence, and 78% remained undetermined. The forest formations present different sets of indicator species suggesting replacement of species along the forest formations. The largest and significant fraction of variation in the composition and abundance of tree species explained by environmental variables reflects the heterogeneity and complexity of habitats throughout the region of Atlantic Forest. The low spatial influence and the environmental results indicate a pattern of structured communities due to different requirements of niches by species (niche theory).
Rough techniques for pinpointing defective fuel pins during actual reactor operation were developed for nuclear power plants. These techniques are based on various fission product concentration ratios. Here, a new cesium concentration ratio,134Cs/136Cs, was tested in combination with the more usual cesium ratio134Cs/137Cs. This new cesium ratio confirmed the conclusions drawn from the ratio134Cs/137Cs and provided some additional information on the location of the defective fuel rods. Application of this second cesium ratio improves the reliability of the rough localization method.
In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion.
The uptake and the long term behavior of Cs-137, Cs-134 and K-40 in the annual tree rings of spruce were examined. The youngest tree rings which are most active in water transport have higher activity concentrations, of K-40 and of radiocesium than the older ones. The activity concentration of Cs-137 in a water transporting tree ring can be well described as a function of the activity concentration of K-40. Furthermore a depth profile of the soil was taken and gives information, about the depth distribution of radiocesium and K-40.
The uptake and the radial distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in the tree rings of a spruce tree were examined. The activity concentrations of Pb-210 are at a constant level of about 1,7 Bq/kg dry weight (dw) in older tree rings but decrease to younger ones. We suggest that Rn-222 dissolved in the soil water is taken up in significant amounts by the tree roots and decays to Pb-210 within the wood. The activity concentrations of Ra-226 of about 2,0 Bq/kg (dw) are nearly constant over all tree rings. Ra-228 however showed a significantly different behavior. Futhermore the activity concentrations of U-, Th- and Pu-isotopes were determined. A depth profile of the soil within the root zone of the spruce gives further informations.
Authors:R. Kautenburger, J. Wannemacher, and P. Müller
The 11 th CITES Conference in 2000 decided to maintain a total worldwide ban on trade of elephant ivory. The 12 th Conference
in 2002 decided to allow a conditional trade in stockpiled ivory in 2004. Reopening of the ivory trade would require methods
to identify the origin of the ivory so that legal ivory can be distinguished from the black-market ones. In this study, we
describe the X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis of ivory samples from various regions of Africa and Southeast-Asia
to characterize ivory of the various elephant populations.
Authors:M. Anke, S. Holzinger, M. Seifert, R. Müller, and U. Schäfer
The molybdenum intake by German and Mexican adults (21 test populations) aged 20 to 69 years with mixed and ovolactovegetarian diets were determined. Each test group consisted of at least 7 women and 7 men, which collected all consumed foodstuffs and beverages as visually estimated duplicates on 7 successive days. The balance studies were carried out with 8 test populations (women and men) with mixed and ovolactovegetarian diets. People with mixed diet in Germany consumed, on average, 89 (women) and 100 μg Mo/day (men), whereas in Mexico they took in 160 and 210 μg Mo/day, respectively. German ovolactovegetarians consumed ∼175 μg Mo/day. Male adults of Germany consumed 21% more molybdenum than women. This difference is the result of a 24% higher dry matter intake by males. The residence place, its geological origin and time of examination influenced the molybdenum intake significantly (60–115 μg Mo/day). The normative molybdenum requirement of adults amounts to 25 μg/day, with women needing 20 and men 25 μg/day. As a rule approximately only one-third of the absorbed molybdenum is excreted renally, the rest faecally. Breast feeding mothers excreted 11% via milk, 56% faecally and 33% renally. The apparent absorption rate of molybdenum amounted to 37% in humans with mixed and vegetarian diets, whereas it reached 44% in breast-feeding mothers. The calculation of molybdenum consumption (basket method) overestimated the molybdenum intake by 50% in comparison to chemical determination by the duplicate portion method.