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  • Author or Editor: R. Maciejewski x
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The aim of this study was to establish if the changes in the ultrastructure of the exocrine part of the pancreas are correlated with changes in serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions during the progression of diabetes in rabbits. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male New Zealand rabbits by a single injection of alloxan into the auricular vein. On the day 7th the glucose level in the whole blood was measured and this day was designated as the first day of diabetes. Rabbits were divided into 5 groups: untreated control, 21-day diabetes, 42-day diabetes, 90-day diabetes and 180-day diabetes. The cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) levels were examined in the serum. The total pancreatic lipase activity was measured spectrophotometrically in the pancreatic homogenate. Histological specimens were examined under an electron microscopy. The glucose level increased significantly in all of the alloxan exposed animals. The significant elevation of cholesterol level was observed on day 21 and 180. The HDL level was increased (P<0.05) only on the day 21st. The LDL level and the total activity of pancreatic lysosomal lipase increased significantly on day 21, 42 and 90. Further dilation of granular endoplasmic reticular ducts and decrease in the number of zymogen granules were observed amongst exocrine cells. Fragmented mitochondrial and translucent matrix were also seen. Intensification of the pancreatic fibrosis was found on day 90. Microvascular changes were reported in exocrine cells after 180 days. Their nuclei were smaller with large bulges on the nuclear membrane, and the number of heterogeneous electron granules of zymogen further declined. We concluded that the intensification of ultrastructural changes of the exocrine part of the pancreas correlated with the changes of the pancreatic lipase activity, and glucose and lipoprotein levels.

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The thermal decompositoon of calcium carbonate mixed with calcium fluoride was examined by means of simultaneous TG, DTG and DTA. The temperature range of CaCO3 decomposition shifted to higher temperatures as a result of CaCO3-CaF2 eutectic formation. The temperature of melting of this eutectic was in the temperature range of CaCO3 decomposition, and therefore all factors which increase the partial pressure of CO2 (such as the thickness of the sample layer, the shape of the crucible, the heating rate, etc.) influence the amount of the liquid phase. The DTA curves can be regarded as the sum of three endothermic effects occurring almost simultaneously: decomposition of CaCO3 in the solid phase, melting of the eutectic, and decomposition of CaCO3 present in the liquid phase.

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A new method (based on DTA and TG) for the determination of the eutectic composition is proposed for systems in which one of the components is unstable in the vicinity of the eutectic melting temperature. The eutectic composition established by means of this method for the CaCO3-CaF2 system is in very good agreement with the results obtained in a classical way.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
F. Burdan
,
Justyna Szumiło
,
Agnieszka Korobowicz
,
J. Dudka
,
Elżbieta Korobowicz
,
G. Wallner
, and
R. Maciejewski

Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5) is a lysosomal endopeptidase physiologically present at very low concentration in different tissues. The aim of the study was to estimate the physiological activity and distribution of cathepsin D in the liver. Four groups of ten-week-old male Wistar rats were raised without xenobiotics and sacrificed on day 4, 42, 47 and 84 of the experiment, and their livers were taken for immunohistochemical and biochemical investigation. Immunostaining for cathepsin D was evaluated by light microscope. Activity of the free and bound fractions of hepatic cathepsin D was measured spectrophotometrically. Immunohistochemical staining for cathepsin D was positive in Browicz-Kupffer cells in some but not in all rat liver specimens of each experimental group. The staining pattern was cytoplasmic and granular. Occasionally the positive stained endothelial cells were also found. No activity of cathepsin D in hepatocytes was detected. The positive immunostaining was found in livers with high enzyme activity in the biochemical investigation. No significant differences in activity of the free and bound fractions of cathepsin D among the different age groups were noted. However, the higher, age-dependent activity (p≯0.05) of the free fraction was observed in the youngest and the two-middle groups of rats that were sacrificed on day 42 and 47 than in the oldest one. The bound fraction did not reveal such changes. It could be concluded that there were no differences in the activity of hepatic free and bound fractions of cathepsin D in male Wistar rats of various reproductive age. The rat Browicz-Kupffer cells revealed the highest activity of cathepsin D.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
F. Burdan
,
Barbara Madej
,
Elzbieta Radzikowska
,
J Dudka
,
Agnieszka Korobowicz
,
M Pasternak
, and
R Maciejewski

Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the influence of cimetidine and famotidine on the cerebral cortex, particularly on the activity of cortical cathepsin B, D and L in the frontal lobe of rat brain. The drugs were administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for six weeks to male Wistar rats in two doses. The initial dose was 2.85 mg/kg for cimetidine and 0.285 mg/kg for famotidine. The second dose was 10 times higher. Control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. Half of the animals from each of the drug-treated and control groups were sacrificed on the 42nd day of the experiment. The remaining animals were raised for another 6 weeks without any xenobiotics, and sacrificed on the 84th day. The frontal lobe of the right cerebral hemisphere was taken for biochemical investigation. The activities of free and bound fractions of cathepsin B, D and L were evaluated spectrophotometrically in cortical homogenates. The activity of bound fraction of cathepsin D and L decreased significantly in animals exposed to the higher dose of cimetidine and sacrificed on the 42nd day. Also significant elevation of the free fraction of cathepsin L was noted in the same group of rats. Cathepsin activities were normalized during the next six weeks. No behavioural changes were noted among the observed animals. Unlike cimetidine, famotidine did not change profiles of the cerebral cathepsins.

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