Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23 items for

  • Author or Editor: R. Marten x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract  

The thermal stability and thermal decomposition pathways for synthesized composite iowaite/woodallite have been determined using thermogravimetry analysis in conjunction with evolved gas mass spectrometry. Dehydration of the hydrotalcites occurred over a range of 56–70�C. The first dehydroxylation step occurred at around 255�C and, with the substitution of more iron(III) for chromium(III) this temperature increased to an upper limit of 312�C. This trend was observed throughout all decomposition steps. The release of carbonate ions as carbon dioxide gas initialised at just above 300�C and was always accompanied by loss of hydroxyl units as water molecules. The initial loss of the anion in this case the chloride ion was consistently observed to occur at about 450�C with final traces evolved at 535 to 780�C depending of the Fe:Cr ratio and was detected as HCl (m/z=36). Thus for this to occur, hydroxyl units must have been retained in the structure at temperatures upwards of 750�C. Experimentally it was found difficult to keep CO2 from reacting with the compounds and in this way the synthesized iowaite-woodallite series somewhat resembled the natural minerals.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Evidence for the existence of primitive life forms such as lichens and fungi can be based upon the formation of oxalates. These oxalates form as a film like deposit on rocks and other host matrices. The anhydrous oxalate mineral moolooite CuC2O4 as the natural copper(II) oxalate mineral is a classic example. Another example of a natural oxalate is the mineral wheatleyite Na2Cu2+(C2O4)2·2H2O. High resolution thermogravimetry coupled to evolved gas mass spectrometry shows decomposition of wheatleyite at 255°C. Two higher temperature mass losses are observed at 324 and 349°C. Higher temperature mass losses are observed at 819, 833 and 857°C. These mass losses as confirmed by mass spectrometry are attributed to the decomposition of tennerite CuO. In comparison the thermal decomposition of moolooite takes place at 260°C. Evolved gas mass spectrometry for moolooite shows the gas lost at this temperature is carbon dioxide. No water evolution was observed, thus indicating the moolooite is the anhydrous copper(II) oxalate as compared to the synthetic compound which is the dihydrate.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of beaverite and plumbojarosite was studied using a combination of thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a mass spectrometer. The mineral beaverite Pb(Fe,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6 decomposes in three stages attributed to dehydroxylation, loss of sulphate and loss of oxygen, which take place at 376 and 420, 539 and 844°C. In comparison three thermal decomposition steps are observed for plumbojarosite PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12 at 376, 420 and 502°C attributed to dehydroxylation; loss of sulphate occurs at 599°C; and loss of oxygen and formation of lead occurs at 844 and 953°C. The temperatures of the thermal decomposition of the natural plumbojarosite were found to be less than that for the synthetic jarosite. A comparison of the thermal decomposition of plumbojarosite with argentojarosite is made. The understanding of the chemistry of the thermal decomposition of minerals such as beaverite, argentojarosite and plumbojarosite and related minerals is of vital importance in the study known as ‘archeochemistry’.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The precursors of carbonate minerals have the potential to react with greenhouse gases to form many common carbonate minerals. The carbonate bearing minerals, magnesite, calcite, strontianite and witherite, were synthesised and analysed using a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas mass spectrometry. The DTG curves show that as both the mass and the size of the metal cationic radii increase, the inherent thermal stability of the carbonate also increases dramatically. It is proposed that this inherent effect is a size stabilisation relationship between that of the carbonate and the metal cation. As the cationic radius increases in size, the radius approaches and in the case of Sr2+ and Ba2+ exceeds that of the overall size of the carbonate anion. The thermal stability of these minerals has implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases. The carbonates with the larger cations show significantly greater stability.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry has been used to study the thermal decomposition of a synthetic hydronium jarosite. Five mass loss steps are observed at 262, 294, 385, 557 and 619C. The mass loss step at 557C is sharp and marks a sharp loss of sulphate as SO3 from the hydronium jarosite. Mass spectrometry through evolved gases confirms the first three mass loss steps to dehydroxylation, the fourth to a mass loss of the hydrated proton and a sulphate and the final step to the loss of the remaining sulphate. Changes in the molecular structure of the hydronium jarosite were followed by infrared emission spectroscopy. This technique allows the infrared spectrum at the elevated temperatures to be obtained. Infrared emission spectroscopy confirms the dehydroxylation has taken place by 400 and the sulphate loss by 650C. Jarosites are a group of minerals formed in evaporite deposits and form a component of the efflorescence. The minerals can function as cation and heavy metal collectors. Hydronium jarosite has the potential to act as a cation collector by the replacement of the proton with a heavy metal cation.

Restricted access

Thermal decomposition of liebigite

A high resolution thermogravimetric and hot-stage Raman spectroscopic study

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. L. Frost, M. L. Weier, and W. Martens

A combination of high resolution thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a gas evolution mass spectrometer has been used to study the thermal decomposition of liebigite. Water is lost in two steps at 44 and 302°C. Two mass loss steps are observed for carbon dioxide evolution at 456 and 686°C. The product of the thermal decomposition was found to be a mixture of CaUO4 and Ca3UO6. The thermal decomposition of liebigite was followed by hot-stage Raman spectroscopy. Two Raman bands are observed in the 50°C spectrum at 3504 and 3318 cm-1 and shift to higher wavenumbers upon thermal treatment; no intensity remains in the bands above 300°C. Three bands assigned to the υ 1 symmetric stretching modes of the (CO3)2- units are observed at 1094, 1087 and 1075 cm-1 in agreement with three structurally distinct (CO3)2- units. At 100°C, two bands are found at 1089 and 1078 cm-1. Thermogravimetric analysis is undertaken as dynamic experiment with a constant heating rate whereas the hot-stage Raman spectroscopic experiment occurs as a staged experiment. Hot stage Raman spectroscopy supports the changes in molecular structure of liebigite during the proposed stages of thermal decomposition as observed in the TG-MS experiment.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The thermal stability and thermal decomposition pathways for synthetic iowaite have been determined using thermogravimetry in conjunction with evolved gas mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis showed the formula of the synthesised iowaite to be Mg6.27Fe1.73(Cl)1.07(OH)16(CO3)0.336.1H2O and X-ray diffraction confirms the layered structure. Dehydration of the iowaite occurred at 35 and 79C. Dehydroxylation occurred at 254 and 291C. Both steps were associated with the loss of CO2. Hydrogen chloride gas was evolved in two steps at 368 and 434C. The products of the thermal decomposition were MgO and a spinel MgFe2O4. Experimentally it was found to be difficult to eliminate CO2 from inclusion in the interlayer during the synthesis of the iowaite compound and in this way the synthesised iowaite resembled the natural mineral.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Iron doped boehmite nanofibres with varying iron content have been prepared at low temperatures using a hydrothermal treatment in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant. The resultant nanofibres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images showed the resulting nanostructures are predominantly nanofibres when Fe doping is no more than 5%; in contrast nanosheets were formed if Fe doping was above 5%. For the 10% Fe doped boehmite, a mixed morphology of nanofibres and nanosheets were obtained. Nanotubes instead of nanofibres were observed in samples with 20% added iron. The Fe doped boehmite and the subsequent nanofibres/nanotubes were analysed by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric methods. Boehmite nanofibres decompose at higher temperatures than non-hydrothermally treated boehmite and nano-sheets decompose at lower temperatures than the nanofibres.

Restricted access

Thermal decomposition of sabugalite

A controlled rate thermal analysis study

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Frost, J. Kristóf, W. Martens, M. Weier, and E. Horváth

The mineral sabugalite (HAl)0.5[(UO2)2(PO4)]2⋅8H2O, has been studied using a combination of energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis techniques. X-ray diffraction shows that the starting material in the thermal decomposition is sabugalite and the product of the thermal treatment is a mixture of aluminium and uranyl phosphates. Four mass loss steps are observed for the dehydration of sabugalite at 48°C (temperature range 39 to 59°C), 84°C (temperature range 59 to 109°C), 127°C (temperature range 109 to 165°C) and around 270°C (temperature range 175 to 525°C) with mass losses of 2.8, 6.5, 2.3 and 4.4%, respectively, making a total mass loss of water of 16.0%. In the CRTA experiment mass loss stages were found at 60, 97, 140 and 270°C which correspond to four dehydration steps involving the loss of 2, 6, 6 and 2 moles of water. These mass losses result in the formation of four phases namely meta(I)sabugalite, meta(II)sabugalite, meta(III)sabugalite and finally uranyl phosphate and alumina phosphates. The use of a combination of dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis techniques enabled a definitive study of the thermal decomposition of sabugalite. While the temperature ranges and the mass losses vary due to the different experimental conditions, the results of the CRTA analysis should be considered as standard data due to the quasi-equilibrium nature of the thermal decomposition process.

Restricted access

Summary High resolution TG coupled to a gas evolution mass spectrometer has been used to study the thermal properties of a chromium based series of Ni/Cu hydrotalcites of formulae NixCu6-xCr2(OH)16(CO3)×4H2O where x varied from 6 to 0. The effect of increased Cu composition results in the increase of the endotherms and mass loss steps to higher temperatures. Evolved gas mass spectrometry shows that water is lost in a number of steps and that the interlayer carbonate anion is lost simultaneously with hydroxyl units. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the heat flow steps for the thermal decomposition of the synthetic hydrotalcites. Hydrotalcites in which M 2+ consist of Cu, Ni or Co form important precursors for mixed metal-oxide catalysts. The application of these mixed metal oxides is in the wet catalytic oxidation of low concentrations of retractable organics in water. Therefore, the thermal behaviour of synthetic hydrotalcites, NixCu6-xCr2(OH)16CO3×nH2O was studied by thermal analysis techniques in order to determine the correct temperatures for the synthesis of the mixed metal oxides.

Restricted access