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Abstract  

A technique is described for the production of sealed226Ra sources for use in efficiency and energy calibration of hyperfine germanium -radiation detectors.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: I. Lamprecht, R. Seymour, C. White, P. Matthews, and L. Wadsö

Abstract  

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) are frequently observed with insects, i.e. oxygen take up and carbon dioxide release occur interrupted by periods of a few minutes up to many hours. The paper presents direct and indirect calorimetric experiments on DGCs of the scarabid rhinoceros beetle Oryctes nasicornis. A direct/indirect calorimetric experiment is presented. Total and specific heat production rates amount to 0.56mWand 0.42mWg−1 in the first period without DGCs and to 0.43 mW (0.32 mW g−1) in the second phase, resp. The mean DGC amplitude is 0.184 mW and thus between 33 and 66% of the total turnover.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Lubaina Presswala, M. Matthews, I. Atkinson, O. Najjar, Nadine Gerhardstein, J. Moran, R. Wei, and A. Riga

Abstract  

The thermal analytical study of most hydrophobic and hydrophilic D/L amino acids reveals significant hydropathy index correlation between the presence of water and crystalline amino acids. The TG derivative mass profiles for arginine and lysine (hydrophilic acids) at various time intervals of atmospheric exposure, show two distinct peaks, one between 50 and 60°C (unbound water), and one close to 100°C (bound-like water). The DSC heat-cool profiles for lysine and arginine confirmed the presence of these multiple waters with two heats of vaporization. The absence of these patterns from the TG and DSC for cysteine and phenylalanine (hydrophobic acids) further supports the conclusions.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Matthews, I. Atkinson, Lubaina Presswala, O. Najjar, Nadine Gerhardstein, R. Wei, Elizabeth Rye, and A. Riga

Abstract  

Dielectric analysis (DEA), supported by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD) and photomicrography, reveal the chiral difference in the amino acids. The acids are classified as dielectric materials based on their structure, relating chirality to the vector sum of the average dipole moment, composed of the constant optical (electronic) and infra-red (atomic) polarizabilities, as well as dipole orientation. This study encompasses 14 L-and D-amino acid isomers. Physical properties recorded include AC electrical conductivity, charge transfer complexes, melting, recrystallization, amorphous and crystalline phases, and relaxation spectra, activation energies and polarization times for the electrical charging process.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: S. Matthews, A. Boegel, S. Eccles, S. Homann, D. Rice, J. Loftis, M. Jovanovich, R. Caufield, B. Mincher, D. Meikrantz, R. Murphy, G. Gresham, and M. Connoly

Abstract  

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are jointly investigating the decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons using bremsstrahlung radiation produced by electron accelerators and gamma photons from spent reactor fuel. Experimental results demonstrate an exponential type decay of concentration with dose for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water and for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and insecticides in organic solutions. Experiments were performed at several photon energies and dose rates with various initial concentrations. Mass balance analysis suggests complete mineralization of VOCs in ground water and indicates significant degradation of PCBs and insecticides to VOC type compounds in organic solutions.

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Physiology International
Authors: Michael S. Brian, Ryanne D. Carmichael, Felicia R. Berube, Daniel T. Blake, Hunter R. Stuercke, and Evan L. Matthews

Abstract

No studies have directly measured ventilatory and metabolic responses while wearing a respiratory training mask (RTM) at rest and during exercise. Eleven aerobically fit adults (age: 21 ± 1 years) completed a randomized cross-over study while wearing an RTM or control mask during cycling at 50% Wmax. An RTM was retrofitted with a gas collection tube and set to the manufacturer's “altitude resistance” setting of 6,000 ft (1,800 m). Metabolic gas analysis, ratings of perceived exertion, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured during rest and cycling exercise. The RTM did not affect metabolic, ventilation, and SpO2 at rest compared to the control mask (all, effect of condition: P > 0.05). During exercise, the RTM blunted respiratory rate and minute ventilation (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to control. Similar increases in VO2 and VCO2 were observed in both conditions (both, effect of condition: P > 0.05). However, the RTM led to decreased fractional expired O2 and increased fractional expired CO2 (effect of condition: P < 0.05) compared to the control mask. In addition, the RTM decreased SpO2 and increased RPE (both, effect of condition: P < 0.05) during exercise. Despite limited influence on ventilation and metabolism at rest, the RTM reduces ventilation and disrupts gas concentrations during exercise leading to modest hypoxemia.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Dhruthiman R. Mantheni, M. P. K. Maheswaram, Hany F. Sobhi, Naullage Indika Perera, Alan T. Riga, M. Ellen Matthews, and K. Alexander

Abstract

Novel dielectric behavior of a linear increase in ionic conductivity prior to melt temperature was observed for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), organic chemicals, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Though, there are solids like polyolefins and long chain organic compounds (tetracosane, pentacosane) which do not exhibit this premelt behavior (i.e., the temperature where the onset of increase in ionic conductivity to melt temperature). We have discovered novel electrical conductivity properties and other physical analytical variations which can lead to unique synthetic routes of certain chemical entities. The above-mentioned unique variations are not related to solid–solid transitions which are quite often observed in pharmaceutical crystalline solids. These new properties are related to amorphous crystalline behavior of a solid. We have also studied the effect of various experimental variables: such as amount of mass tested, applied frequency at a given electric field and heating rate, which results in varying the onset temperature of the increase in ionic conductivity. Melting of the solids was correlated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energies for all the solids were measured in the premelt region using an Arrhenius plot at a specific frequency since we observed changes in the conductivity with frequency. This study focused on frequencies 0.1 to 10 Hz, since the conductivity at these frequencies related to surface analysis. This new physical properties are leading to new electro synthetic procedures to modify or prepare chemicals.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: B. S. Yuldashev, U. S. Salikhbaev, A. A. Kist, R. I. Radyuk, D. S. Barber, H. D. Passell, J. D. Betsill, R. Matthews, E. D. Vdovina, L. I. Zhuk, V. P. Solodukhin, V. L. Poznyak, I. A. Vasiliev, V. M. Alekhina, and A. A. Djuraev

Summary  

This article presents the results of the investigation on radionuclide contamination, physical and chemical forms of plutonium in soil samples of various zones at the territory of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS), and the analysis of these results in connection with characteristics of the performed tests. There was revealed the character of various sites differing by concentration level, 239+240Pu to 241Am concentration ratios, presence forms, area distribution, and magnetic fractions of transuranic radionuclides.

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